TCVN 9369:2012

TCVN 9369:2012 Theaters- Design Standard



TCVN 9369:2012 was converted from TCXDVN 355:2005 according to the regulations in Clause 1, Article 69 of the Law on Standards and Technical Regulations and Point b), Clause 1, Article 7 of the Government’s Decree No. 127/2007/ND-CP dated August 1, 2007 detailing the implementation of some articles of the Law on Standards and Technical Regulations.

TCVN 9369:2012 was compiled by the Institute of Architecture, Urban and Rural Planning – Ministry of Construction, proposed by the Ministry of Construction, appraised by the Directorate for Standards, Metrology and Quality, and announced by the Ministry of Science and Technology.

1. Scope of application

1.1. This standard applies to the design of theaters for performing spoken drama, musicals, dance drama, music and dance, etc. and serves as a basis for establishing construction investment projects, evaluating and appraising projects, technical inspection and acceptance of works.

1.2. The technical requirements of this standard also apply to theaters with special functions such as traditional stage art theaters (tuong, cheo, cai luong and other special folk art forms), experimental stage theaters, etc. However, in these cases, exceptions are allowed in the stage area.

1.3. This standard also applies to auditoriums of building complexes such as cultural palaces, clubs, tourist areas, meeting halls, conference centers, etc. The stage part is for reference only and is not mandatory.

1.4. For performance works with distinct characteristics such as outdoor theaters, puppet theaters, circus arenas, concert halls or renovation works, this standard can be referred to.

2. Referenced documents

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this standard. For dated references, only the cited edition applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

TCVN 2622:1995, Fire protection for buildings and structures – Design requirements.

TCVN 7958:2008, Protection of construction works – Termite control for new construction works.

TCVN 9385:20121), Lightning protection for construction works – Guidelines for design, inspection and maintenance of the system.

3. Terms and definitions

3.1. Theater space

The space for performing and enjoying stage art. Theater space includes two components:

– Stage area.

– Audience area.

3.1.1. Stage area

The part of the space that directly and indirectly serves the performance. The stage area includes two components:

– Stage: where the performance takes place directly.

– Stage service area: where activities to prepare and serve the performance take place.

3.1.2. Audience area

The part of the space that serves the audience watching the performance. The audience area includes two components:

– Auditorium: where the audience sits to watch the performance.

– Spaces serving the audience.

3.2. Stage

Where the art is directly performed, including two components:

– Performance floor, main stage.

– Auxiliary spaces.

3.2.1. Performance floor

The area on the stage floor, where the art is performed for the audience to enjoy.

3.2.2. Auxiliary spaces

The spaces immediately adjacent to the performance floor, located in the stage area and directly serving the performance. Auxiliary spaces include:

– Apron

– Orchestra pit

– Side stages, fly tower, stage trap room. Apron

The part of the performance floor that extends towards the audience. When the main curtain is closed, the apron is located in front of the main curtain. Orchestra pit

The space located between the stage and the audience, made lower to accommodate the orchestra’s performance. Side stages

Including spaces with dimensions equivalent to the performance floor to serve the moving and arranging of props, stage setting as well as serving other stage techniques. The side stages are located on the right, left and behind the main stage. The side stage behind is called the rear stage. Below the main stage is the stage trap room.

3.3. Proscenium stage

A type of theater space in which the stage and the audience are on opposite sides, separated by the apron (also called the proscenium).

In this standard, the proscenium stage type is chosen to determine the technical criteria.

3.4. Proscenium

The plane located between the stage and the audience, through which the audience follows the performance. The proscenium can be defined by building structures or other materials, or defined by conventional solutions, lighting, marking objects. Usually, the main proscenium is the apron, where the main stage curtain is hung.

3.5. Stage zero line

The straight line of intersection between the proscenium and the stage floor surface. The midpoint S of the stage zero line is the viewpoint for calculating the design to ensure that all spectators can see.

3.6. Auditorium floor slope

The slope to ensure that the audience sitting in the front row does not obstruct the view of those sitting in the back row.

3.7. Sightline

The straight line from the eyes of the seated audience member to the viewpoint S.

3.8. Stage grid

The steel structural system, located behind the apron. The grid includes two straight vertical towers, located on either side of the proscenium and a horizontal bridge at the top of the proscenium. Lighting and other technical equipment are installed on the grid. There is a walkway across the apron on the bridge.

3.9. Fly tower (also called the fly loft)

The part of the space that continues the main stage vertically to pull up backdrops, props, set pieces and perform stage techniques. In the fly tower there are catwalks and a gridiron.

3.10. Stage trap room

The space corresponding to the stage, located below the stage floor (equivalent in area to the main stage) to place revolving, sliding, lifting equipment, store rolled backdrops and make an access to the orchestra pit.

3.11. Catwalks

Narrow walkways around the sides of the fly tower and side stage walls for access, operation and installation of stage service equipment.

3.12. Gridiron

A system of steel and floor structures located at the highest point, under the roof of the fly tower, used for access, operation and installation of equipment, mainly the pulley, winch, and cable system to hang battens above the stage.

3.13. Battens

A system of many steel or alloy bars, suspended on cables. Audio, lighting equipment or set backdrops are hung on the battens. Thanks to the system of cables, pulleys, and winches, the battens can be lowered to the stage floor at the lowest and raised to the gridiron at the highest.

3.14. Mobile stage floor

In addition to the main, fixed stage, there are also types of mobile stage floors:

– Revolving stage: Performs a rotational motion around a center, on a plane parallel to or coinciding with the stage floor surface;

– Sliding stage: Performs a horizontal motion, on a plane parallel to or coinciding with the stage floor surface;

– Lift stage: A part of the stage floor that can be raised higher or lowered lower than the stage floor surface. If the lift stage has a small size, it is called a lift table.

– The mobile stage floors are used to perform three main functions:

+ Transporting equipment and set pieces;

+ Changing set pieces and scenes on stage during the performance;

+ Serving some acting techniques.

3.15. Fire curtain

A large curtain made of metal and fire-resistant materials, able to withstand pressure, fire, smoke, and toxic gases, used to prevent the spread of fire, smoke, and toxic gases from one part to another in the theater. The fire curtain is usually located above the ceiling and is lowered when an incident or fire occurs. The most important fire curtain is located at the apron area to separate the area with the highest fire risk (stage) from the area that needs the most protection (audience). In large-scale theaters – auditoriums, fire curtains are also arranged in some other areas to divide and isolate the fire area in case of an incident.

4. Classification and grading of theaters and auditoriums
4.1. Classification

4.1.1. Theaters Multi-purpose theater, serving the performance and enjoyment of various types of stage art. Special-purpose theater: used only (or mainly) for one type of stage art

– Spoken drama theater;

– Opera – ballet theater;

– Cheo theater;

– Tuong theater;

– Cai luong theater;

– Puppet theater. Troupe’s theater; a theater owned by an art troupe, belonging to that troupe and only serving that troupe for rehearsals, preparation and performances. Experimental theater: a theater of art schools, art research institutes, with a special design to meet the needs of research and experimentation of innovations in performing arts with different performance spaces.

4.1.2. Auditoriums Multi-purpose auditorium; serving art performances and can be used for other purposes such as conferences, festivals, dancing, indoor sports competitions, etc. (For example, auditoriums of cultural palaces, clubs). Auditorium for one type of art: such as movie theaters (film art), circus arenas (for circus art), theaters (various types of stage art), concert halls, etc.

4.2. Grading

4.2.1. Theaters Theaters are divided into different grades according to the scale of the stage (performance floor area) and the scale of the auditorium. The construction grade is taken according to the regulations on classification and grading of civil, industrial and urban technical infrastructure works [1]. The grading of theaters according to the scale of the stage is specified in Table 1.

Table 1 – Grading of theaters according to stage scale

Theater gradePerformance floor area
Construction grade
1. Grade ILarger than 100Grade I
2. Grade IIFrom 61 to 100Grade II
3. Grade IIISmaller than 60Grade III

4.2.2. Auditoriums The grading of auditoriums according to scale is specified in Table 2.

Table 2 – Grading of auditoriums

Auditorium gradeAuditorium scale seatsConstruction grade
1. Oversized auditoriumOver 1,500Special grade
2. Size A auditoriumFrom 1,201 to 1,500Special grade
3. Size B auditoriumFrom 801 to 1,200Grade I
3. Size C auditoriumFrom 401 to 800Grade I
4. Size D auditoriumFrom 251 to 400Grade II
5. Size E auditoriumSmaller than 250Grade III The grading of theater and auditorium constructions according to durability and fire and explosion safety is specified in Table 3.

Table 3 – Requirements for theater and auditorium construction grade

Theater and auditorium gradeConstruction grade requirements
Construction gradeDurabilityFire resistance level
1. Oversized auditorium, Size A auditoriumSpecial gradeService life over 100 yearsLevel I
2. Grade I theater, Size B auditorium, Size C auditoriumGrade IService life over 100 yearsLevel I or Level II
3. Grade II theater, Size D auditoriumGrade IIService life from 50 years to 100 yearsLevel II or Level III
4. Grade III theater, Size E auditoriumGrade IIIService life from 20 years to 50 yearsLevel III or Level IV
5. Requirements for location and area of construction site

5.1. The construction location of a theater – auditorium must meet the following requirements:

a) In the center of an urban area, residential area or located in a green area, park, tourist area to be attractive and contribute to the activity and appearance of the central area;

b) In a place with convenient traffic for private and public transport;

c) Far from large noise sources, toxic gas sources, places with high risk of fire and explosion;

d) The site area is calculated according to the standard from 6 m2/audience to 10 m2/audience. Building density from 35% to 40%.

5.2. The traffic roads around the construction must ensure that fire trucks can access all sides of the construction.

5.3. When arranging the entrance for passenger cars to access the theater, it is necessary to make a road for cars to run continuously, not have to reverse, and the road width must ensure that two cars can pass each other.

5.4. For theaters – auditoriums from Grade II or Size C and above, it is necessary to arrange a road for trucks to access the set warehouse, with a road width not less than 4 m. When the truck reverses, the truck floor must be level with the warehouse floor.

NOTE: In case the warehouse is arranged inside the construction, the entrance must have a clearance height of not less than 4.5 m.

5.5. The theater – auditorium must arrange a parking area with sufficient space for passenger cars, cars, motorcycles, bicycles and wheelchairs for people with disabilities. Parking for people with disabilities must be located near the entrance to the theater. If possible, arrange a space for wheelchairs right next to the entrance or entrance hall. Stairways must have ramps for wheelchairs. The entrance and exit of the parking lot must not cross the main flow of people entering and exiting the theater. The area of the parking lots depends on the characteristics of each urban area where the theater – auditorium is built. It can be calculated according to the standard from 3 m2/audience to 5 m2/audience.

NOTE: When designing a theater, it is necessary to take into account the access and use needs of people with disabilities. Design requirements are taken according to relevant regulations [3].

5.6. In front of each exit from the theater, it is necessary to arrange an area for people to escape. The area for people to escape is calculated to be not less than 30 m2/100 audience members exiting at that door.

The areas for people to escape must not be surrounded by walls, fences, water surfaces or greenery, but must be opened towards traffic roads or other public spaces. Entrances and exits for cars, public transport, and fire trucks, etc. are not counted as areas for people to escape.

5.7. The public space for gathering people and vehicles in front of the theater – auditorium (or the side facing the street) is designed with the standard:

– 1.50 m/100 audience members;

– Not less than 15 m for oversized auditoriums, Size A and B auditoriums.

5.8. General warehouses and large workshops: if they do not serve the theaters daily, they must not be placed in the theater building but must be arranged as separate constructions, separated from the theater’s site.

5.9. Housing or other civil facilities must not be arranged in the theater – auditorium construction, and garages, gasoline and oil depots, explosives and warehouses that do not serve the theater must not be arranged.

5.10. The use of wooden structures in the construction must have solutions to prevent termites. Design requirements follow the regulations in TCVN 7958:2008.

6. Architectural design requirements
6.1. Design requirements for the audience area

6.1.1. The audience area of the theater includes:

– Auditorium (where the audience sits to watch);

– Spaces serving the audience: entrance, ticket office, entrance hall, coat check, corridors, foyer;

– Social spaces: dance hall, banquet room, lounge, traditional room;

– Auxiliary rooms: medical – first aid, security, staff room and some other function rooms depending on specific conditions;

– Traffic routes, corridors, stairs, cafeteria, coffee shop, etc.

6.1.2. Area and volume standards:

– Volume standard: from 5 m3/audience to 7 m3/audience;

– Area standards for spaces belonging to the audience area are specified in Table 4.

Table 4 – Area standards for the audience area

(The components are mandatory for all theaters)

Functional spaceArea standard
1. Auditorium (including the area of balconies, boxes)From 0.8 to 1.2
2. Ticket office0.05
3. Entrance hallFrom 0.15 to 0.18
4. Coat check0.03
5. Audience distribution corridor0.20
6. Foyer0.30
7. Toilet area0.03
8. Medical – first aid room0.03
9. Cafeteria, coffee shop for the audience0.10
10. Cafeteria preparation room0.03

6.1.3. Dimensions and calculation parameters for an auditorium with a proscenium stage are specified in Table 5.

Table 5 – Dimensions and parameters for an auditorium with a proscenium stage

1. Depth of auditorium, m
a) For spoken drama, opera theater
b) For musical theater, dance theater
≤ 27
≤ 30
Is the distance from the stage zero line to the back wall of the auditorium, behind the farthest row of seats.
2. Floor plan opening angle (g), (°)< 30Opening angle (g) is taken according to Figure 1
3. Viewing angle of the audience sitting in the middle of the first row (b), (°)≤ 110Viewing angle (b) is taken according to Figure 1
4. Viewing angle of the audience sitting in the middle of the last row (a), (°)≥ 30Viewing angle (a) is taken according to Figure 1
5. Deviation angle of the sightline, (°)
a) For the audience sitting on the auditorium axis
b) For the boxes, balconies on the upper floor, the position closest to the stage
≤ 26

≤ 40
Is the angle formed by the horizontal plane with the straight line drawn from the eyes of the audience to the midpoint of the stage zero line
6. Distance from the first row to the orchestra pit railing must not be less than, m2.6If wheelchair seating is arranged, it must be 3.2 m
7. Height of stage floor, mFrom 0.9 to 1.15Is the height of the stage zero line compared to the auditorium floor at the first row of seats
8. Clearance height of the lowest part in the auditorium, m≥ 2.6 

NOTES: a ≥ 30° and b ≤ 110°

Figure 1 – Opening angle and viewing angles

6.1.4. Ticket office: can be arranged outside the construction, inside the construction or the ticket office combined with the entrance hall. From 1 room to 3 ticket offices are arranged for each theater. In front of each ticket office there is a railing to guide customers to line up.

In all cases, the ticket checking and ticket tearing point must be located after the entrance hall.

6.1.5. Audience entrance: the entrance must be made of a two-leaf, hinged door, opening outward, in the direction of escape. An automatic door closer can be used. Rolling doors, sliding doors, sash doors, bolt doors, inward opening leaves must not be made. Doorsteps must not be made, curtains must not be hung.

If the opening door or stop door has a glass surface, safety glass must be used.

Door width standard: 0.60 m per 100 audience members (odd numbers below one hundred are rounded up to one hundred).

6.1.6. The entrance hall must not be combined with the audience distribution corridor as well as the entrance hall with the foyer.

6.1.7. Coat check: in theaters with Size C, D, E auditoriums, it is allowed to combine the entrance hall with the coat check, or to combine the audience distribution corridor with the foyer. In that case, the area criteria specified in Table 4 can be reduced.

6.1.8. Foyer: directly communicates with the auditorium, balconies, boxes, cafeteria – coffee areas, toilets. Does not directly communicate with the entrance hall or outside spaces.

6.1.9. The toilet area for the audience is located next to the foyer but not connected to the entrance hall or outside spaces. The toilet area must not be arranged to have direct access to the auditorium space.

6.1.10. Cafeteria – coffee shop for the audience who have not entered: can be located next to the entrance hall but must not be allowed to connect with the audience distribution corridor or foyer. The area of this cafeteria – coffee shop is not included in the area criteria specified in Table 4.

6.1.11. Cafeteria – coffee shop for the audience who have entered: located next to the foyer or audience distribution corridor. The area of this cafeteria is specified in Table 4.

6.1.12. Clearance height:

– Ticket office, coat check, cafeteria – coffee shop, audience distribution corridor, etc.: not less than 3.3 m;

– Entrance hall: not less than 3.6 m;

– Foyer: not less than 4.2 m.

6.1.13. Dimensions of seats for the audience are specified as follows:

– Width (clearance distance between two armrests): from 45 cm to 55 cm.

– Depth (distance between the seat edge and the backrest): from 45 cm to 55 cm.

– Seat height from the floor: from 40 cm to 45 cm.

6.1.14. Seats must be firmly attached to the floor surface, except for seats in boxes with flat floors, but there must not be more than 8 free, movable seats.

NOTE: Exceptions are allowed for multi-purpose auditoriums of cultural centers and clubs.

6.1.15. Folding seats must ensure that they do not make noise when used and provide comfort for the audience throughout the viewing time.

6.1.16. The distance for walking between two rows of seats is specified as follows:

– Not less than 45 cm for auditoriums of Size B and above.

– Not less than 40 cm for auditoriums of Size C and below.

The specific calculation of this distance according to the level of comfort is shown in Figure 2.

6.1.17. The maximum number of seats arranged in a continuous row of seats depends on the walking distance between two rows of seats and is specified in Table 6.

Dimensions in millimeters

When someone enters behind, the seated person must stand up, the two people slightly touch each other (minimum)When someone enters behind, the seated person must stand up, the two people do not touch each other (very limited comfort)

a) Non-cushioned seats

When someone enters behind, the seated person must stand up, the two people slightly touch each other (minimum)When someone enters behind, the seated person must stand up, the two people do not touch each other (very limited comfort)When someone enters behind, the seated person does not have to stand up, the person entering turns sideways (good comfort)When someone enters behind, the seated person does not have to stand up, the person entering does not have to turn sideways (very good comfort)

b) Cushioned seats

Figure 2 – Distance between rows of seats

Table 6 – Maximum number of seats in a continuous row of seats

 Have aisles from both ends of the row
Only have an aisle from one end of the row
Width of walking distance between two rows of seats (cm)40455055604045505560
Maximum number of seats allowed to be arranged in a row28344046521416161616

6.1.18. At least 1/3 of the number of front row seats must be arranged to be removable for wheelchair users, or the distance from the front row to the orchestra pit railing must not be less than 3.2 m to arrange seating for wheelchair users.

6.1.19. The slope of the auditorium floor must ensure that the sightline of the audience sitting in the back row is not blocked by the head of the audience sitting in the front row. It is required to raise the height of the sightline at each row of seats from 12 cm to 15 cm.

6.1.20. In each box: arrange from two seats to 12 seats. Do not arrange more than 2 rows of seats in a box with a flat floor and more than 3 rows of seats in a box with a stepped floor.

6.1.21. The distance between the front row of seats on the balcony and the balcony railing must not be less than 90 cm.

The height of the balcony railing must not be less than 85 cm.

6.1.22. Auditorium curtains:

– Made of non-flammable or flame-retardant materials;

– Do not obstruct walkways and escape routes;

– Only hung by the top edge and not fixed at the side or bottom edges;

– The lowest point of the bottom edge of the curtain must be at least 15 cm from the floor surface.

6.1.23. If there are boxes for special guests, there must be a small lounge and a separate restroom (in some cases, a separate emergency exit must also be arranged).

6.1.24. Escape openings are arranged on the auditorium ceiling with a total area of at least 0.5% of the auditorium floor area.

6.1.25. The area of the orchestra pit is calculated differently for different types of theaters and is specified in Table 7. The area standard is calculated for each musician at 1.2 m2, specifically for piano at 4.5 m2.

Table 7 – Dimensions of the orchestra pit

Unit: meter

1 Width of the orchestra pit along the auditorium axis:
a) For spoken drama, opera theater:
b) For musical theater, dance theater:
≥ 3.0
≥ 4.0
2. Depth of the orchestra pit (from the outer edge of the stage floor to the orchestra pit floor)from 2.1 to 2.4
3. Dimensions of each step of the orchestra pit floor:
a) Width:
b) Depth:
from 1.3 to 1.6
4. The ratio of the stage and apron protruding part compared to the width of the orchestra pit opening, not greater than:
a) For spoken drama, opera theater:
b) For musical theater, dance theater:

6.1.26. The conductor’s podium must ensure:

– The conductor’s head and shoulders do not block the audience’s view of the stage;

– The audience can see the conductor from the back up;

– The conductor can see the actors in all positions on the stage and vice versa, the actors in all positions on the stage can see the conductor;

– The conductor can see the musicians in all positions in the orchestra pit and vice versa, the musicians in all positions can see the conductor;

– From the conductor’s position, there must be an internal telephone line connected to the director, the person in charge of the performance, and the musicians’ rest room. The telephone does not ring but has a signal light.

6.1.27. At the musicians’ positions, there must be electrical outlets.

6.1.28. There must be at least two entrances and exits to the orchestra pit.

6.2. Auxiliary rooms for the audience area

6.2.1. Coat check counter: the length of the coat check counter is calculated according to the standard of 1 m/150 people (calculated for 50% of the audience). The clearance height is not less than 3.3 m. The clearance height of the coat rack is not less than 2 m.

Activities in the coat check area must not obstruct the main flow of audience entering and exiting.

6.2.2. For auditoriums of Size C and above, there must be a separate medical first aid room. For smaller auditoriums, a first aid area can be arranged in another function room.

6.2.3. The first aid room must be located on the ground floor, placed approximately halfway between the stage and audience areas, with convenient access from both of the above areas, even when a stretcher needs to be carried.

The medical – first aid room has a direct route to transfer stretchers to the ambulance without going through halls and public spaces.

The medical – first aid room must have a separate external telephone and an internal telephone connected to other departments in the theater.

6.2.4. The broadcasting – television room has an area of 25 m2 to 40 m2, arranged at a point with a comprehensive view of the stage and auditorium. There is a telephone connected to the city telephone network and an internal telephone.

6.2.5. The smoking room is calculated with an area standard of 0.5 m2/person, calculated for 10% of the audience. The smoking room must have a floor made of non-flammable materials and ventilation to exhaust smoke to the outside.

6.2.6. Restrooms, hand-washing areas, and makeup areas for the audience are arranged near the coat check counter, entrance hall, foyer, and on all floors of the theater.

The restroom does not open directly into the auditorium. There must be separate men’s and women’s restrooms, separated right from the outermost entrance. There should be at least one restroom for people with disabilities.

The makeup area is arranged before entering the hand-washing and restroom area.

6.2.7. The number of sanitary fixtures is calculated based on the criteria of 100% of the audience, of which 50% are male and 50% are female, with the sanitary fixtures specified in Table 8.

Table 8 – Calculation norms and sanitary fixtures for the audience

Service targetCalculation normService targetCalculation norm
Men’s restroom100 people per toiletWomen’s restroom50 people per toilet
35 people per urinal300 people are arranged a separate hand-washing room
From 1 to 3 toilets have one hand-washing basinFrom 1 to 3 toilets have one hand-washing basin
NOTE: The restroom area near the seating area for wheelchair users needs to have at least 1 special sanitary fixture for people with disabilities.

6.2.8. Staff room for the audience area (ticket checking, guidance, security, coat check, ticket sales, service staff, etc.) is calculated with an area standard of 1.5 m2/staff to 2 m2/staff.

6.3. Main stage area

6.3.1. The dimensions of the apron depend on the number of audience members and must ensure the geometric ratio of the rectangle, but there is an allowable deviation. The regulations in Table 9 can be referred to.

Table 9 – Guiding indicators for apron dimensions

Unit: meter

Auditorium scaleBest dimensions (l x h)Allowable range
1. Oversized (larger than 1,500 seats)16 x 10l = From 14 to 18h = From 5.5 to 10
2. Size A (From 1,201 to 1,500)14 x 8l = From 13 to 16h = From 5 to 8.5
3. Size B (From 801 to 1,200)13 x 7.5l = From 11.5 to 13h = From 4.5 to 8
4. Size C (From 401 to 800)12 x 6.5l = From 10 to 12.5h = From 4 to 7
5. Size D (From 251 to 400)9.5 x 5l = From 8.5 to 10.5h = From 4.5 to 7
6. Size E (≤ 250)7 x 4.5l = From 6 to 8h = From 4 to 6
l – Apron width (in meters);
h – Apron height (in meters)

6.3.2. The stage grid is 1.2 m away from the apron. The dimensions of the stage grid are equal to the dimensions of the apron.

The catwalk on the stage grid bridge is not less than 0.6 m wide; at the position where lights are installed, it is not less than 1.2 m wide. The clearance height is 2.1 m. The floor must be made of steel, covered with sound-absorbing, non-flammable material. Both edges of the catwalk must have a 10 cm high edge to prevent objects on the floor from falling. The lights on the apron must have light troughs or shades to concentrate the light and brightness for the stage.

NOTE: When necessary, additional lighting equipment should be arranged on the technical balconies in the auditorium.

6.3.3. The performance floor is located behind the main stage curtain, the width is equal to the width of the apron, extending 85 cm on each side. The depth of the performance surface, measured from the main stage curtain to the back stage curtain, is equal to 3/4 of the width of the performance floor. The height of the performance floor surface compared to the floor surface in front of the first row of seats is from 0.95 m to 1.15 m. The performance floor surface must be made of 4 cm thick wood, flat, without gaps, constructed with a resilient floor structure, with a slope of 1% to 1.5%. The load-bearing floor structure is made of concrete or steel. If there is a revolving stage or sliding stage, the gap is not larger than 1 cm, the two edges must be of equal height (See Figure 3).

Dimensions in centimeters

Figure 3 – Dimensions of the apron, stage grid, and adjacent space

6.3.4. On both sides of the performance floor, there needs to be a space of 4 m on each side to place light stands and quick costume change cabins. Behind the performance floor, after the back stage curtain, there needs to be a walkway for actors to move back and forth, with a width of not less than 1.2 m.

6.3.5. The requirements for the apron surface must be the same as the performance floor surface. The protruding part of the apron that covers the orchestra pit opening is specified in Table 7.

6.3.6. To avoid the phenomenon of sound radiation to the fly tower, it is necessary to use surface decorative materials that have the ability to absorb or disperse sound, such as those with rough surfaces or constructed with evenly or unevenly distributed holes.

6.3.7. The sound system in the stage area must be installed to avoid the phenomenon of audio feedback or echo.

6.3.8. There need to be conditions to ensure sound insulation for the auditorium to avoid being affected by outside noise and noise generated by technical equipment inside.

NOTE: The arrangement of components on the stage can be referred to in Appendix A.

6.4. Side stage area

6.4.1. The two side stages on the right and left of the main stage have an area and dimensions equivalent to the main stage. The height of the side stage is equal to the height of the main apron plus 2.4 m. Throughout that height, there must not be any fixed structures or wires that obstruct the horizontal movement of set pieces and backdrops from the main stage to the side stages.

6.4.2. Rear stage: has an area and dimensions equivalent to the main stage, the height is also equal to the height of the apron plus 2.4 m, enough to move the set pieces and backdrops from the main stage to the back without any fixed structures obstructing.

6.4.3. Stage trap room: if there are revolving stage, sliding stage, or lift table equipment, the height depends on the specific design of those equipment. If the stage trap room is only for arranging storage racks for rolled backdrops and arranging access to the orchestra pit, the clearance height is not less than 2.1 m. The access paths must have railings on both sides. There must be at least two entrances and exits to the stage trap room on two opposite sides, the width of each door is not less than 1.2 m. The floor and walls of the stage trap room must ensure the prevention of groundwater from flowing in. All electrical wires and communication wires going under the stage must be lead-sheathed cables or rubber cables that are absolutely safe, water-resistant, moisture-resistant, and not damaged by insects or rodents. Electrical equipment, motors, wires, sockets, connectors, etc. must take into account the case of being submerged in water.

6.4.4. Fly tower: the height of the fly tower (H) measured from the stage floor surface to the underside of the roof structure is:

H = 2h + p + 0.5 m + 2.1 m        (1)

In which:

h: apron height taken as 2 m;

p: Height of the gridiron structure;

The space for installing pulleys and cables under the gridiron is taken as 0.5 m;

The clearance height from the gridiron surface to the underside of the roof structure, which is the space for access and operation, is taken as 2.1 m.

6.4.5. Gridiron: the entire load-bearing structure and floor system, walkways must be made of steel. Around the floors and walkways, there must be a 10 cm high edge, the width of the gap on the floor is not larger than 1 cm, to prevent objects from falling onto the stage. The clearance height on the gridiron is 2.1 m.

6.4.6. The width of the catwalks is not less than 0.6 m. At the positions where lights are installed, it is not less than 1.2 m. The clearance height of the catwalks is not less than 2.1 m, except for the highest catwalk located on the back wall of the fly tower, which has a clearance height of 1.6 m. The load-bearing structure and floor of the catwalks must be made of concrete or steel, with anti-slip, no gaps larger than 1 cm, and both edges must have a 10 cm high edge.

6.4.7. Stage stairs: for auditoriums of Size C and above, they must be made of steel plates with anti-slip grooves; for Size D and below, they can be made of round steel. If the stairs have a slope of more than 60°, from a height of 3 m above the stage floor and up, there must be a safe steel cage surrounding the stairs. If the stairs are more gradual, there must be a handrail from the stage floor surface and up.

6.4.8. Smoke exhaust windows: on all the walls surrounding the stage, side stages, fly tower, windows or openings must not be designed. Only window panels located at the highest part of the fly tower, on the gridiron and under the roof structure are designed to exhaust smoke, heat, and toxic gases in case of fire and explosion. The total area of the smoke exhaust windows is not less than 1/20 to 1/30 of the main stage area.

6.5. Function rooms serving the performance

NOTE: These are the mandatory components that must be present for all theaters. The number of rooms is taken according to specific requirements.

6.5.1. Access for bringing in set pieces: has a width of 4 m to 6 m, the height is not less than the height of the apron.

6.5.2. Performers’ hall, staff arranged at the back of the theater, with a duty room, a corridor leading to the lounge, offices, dressing rooms, waiting rooms, storage rooms, workshops, cafeteria – coffee shop, childcare room (if needed).

6.5.3. Childcare room (for performers’ children) is arranged near the performers’ hall. Area standard is 3 m2/child, calculated for 10% of the performers. In the childcare room, there is a playroom, sleeping room, children’s restroom, food cabinet, medicine cabinet.

6.5.4. Cafeteria – coffee shop serving performers and staff is arranged near the hall and near the dressing rooms and waiting rooms. Area standard is 0.4 m2/person, calculated for 50% of the number of performers and staff present at the same time.

6.5.5. Waiting rooms are arranged near the stage and at the same level as the stage floor. Arrange one or two waiting rooms on two sides of the stage, the area of each room is 30 m2. In the room, there is a screen and loudspeaker connected to a camera placed on the stage to follow the performance, and there must be an internal telephone.

6.5.6. The rehearsal room has an area equal to the main stage plus the surrounding walkways. Arranged far from the main stage. The floor of the rehearsal room is constructed similar to the main stage floor.

6.5.7. The voice rehearsal room has an area of 30 m2, arranged near the rehearsal room.

6.5.8. The rehearsal room for the orchestra is calculated for 30 to 80 musicians, each musician has 1.2 m2 of floor area and 5 m3 to 6 m3 of space volume. The rehearsal room for the orchestra is arranged far from the main stage.

6.5.9. The rehearsal room for the choir: calculated for a minimum of 30 people and a maximum of 200 singers, each person has 0.8 m2 of floor area and 4 m3 to 6 m3 of space volume. The rehearsal room for the choir is arranged far from the main stage.

6.5.10. The dance rehearsal room has a base area equal to the main stage. The floor is designed similar to the main stage. Requires impact sound insulation below and around the floor. Arrange mirrors and barres on all four walls. It is allowed to arrange the dance rehearsal room together with the rehearsal room.

6.5.11. Solo rehearsal rooms: for lead singers, solo instrumentalists, arrange from 3 to 6 rooms, each room is 20 m2, must have a large mirror on at least one wall.

6.5.12. Individual dressing rooms for lead actors to apply makeup and change costumes. Each room is arranged with 1 to 3 makeup tables. The makeup table is 85 cm to 95 cm wide, 55 cm deep, equipped with a 3-sided mirror on the table and a standing mirror on the wall. Along with each makeup table, there is a cabinet 1 m to 1.2 m wide, a costume rack. Each makeup table has a separate face washing basin. For every 2 to 3 rooms, that is, from 8 to 10 individual makeup tables, there is a restroom with a shower, a small rest room with an armchair and a water table.

A theater has from 5 to 10 individual dressing rooms, a total of 10 to 30 individual makeup tables.

6.5.13. Dressing room for regular actors, choir, orchestra for a large number of actors. Each room serves 8 to 10 actors with a floor area standard of 3 m2/actor, has a makeup table 70 cm to 80 cm wide, 55 cm deep. The room is equipped with a number of wardrobes equivalent to the number of makeup tables, costume racks, standing mirrors, face washing basins, armchairs, water tables. Separate rooms for men and women.

For every two dressing rooms, there is a restroom with a shower.

6.5.14. Collective dressing room, for supporting actors, extras located adjacent to the dressing room for the choir and orchestra. Area standard serves from 50 male actors/room to 70 male actors/room and from 30 female actors/room to 50 female actors/room. Floor area norm is 2 m2/actor. Use a shared restroom area.

6.5.15. Dressing room for dance performers is arranged similarly to the individual dressing room for lead actors or the dressing room for the choir and orchestra, with a floor area standard of 4 m2/actor and additionally equipped with a rest room with a reclining bed and a massage bed.

Divided into dressing rooms for lead dance performers and common dressing rooms for the dance troupe performers. A total of dance performer dressing rooms for 20 to 60 male and female dancers.

6.5.16. Rest room for actors is a room for waiting to perform, arranged near the stage and at the same level as the stage floor. The room has seating, water tables, internal communication facilities with all departments in the theater, and a screen or loudspeaker to follow the performance on stage. The floor area is calculated for 60% of the expected maximum number of actors, with an area standard of 1.2 m2/actor.

6.5.17. Smoking room for actors has a floor area of 20 m2 to 30 m2, arranged in the area of the dressing rooms. The room must have a tight-fitting door, an exhaust fan to expel smoke to the outside, and the floor must be made of non-flammable materials.

6.5.18. The instrument tuning room is arranged near the rest room for waiting to perform of the musicians, near the orchestra pit access and at the same level as the orchestra pit floor. Arranged as one or two rooms, the total area is equivalent to the floor area of the orchestra pit.

6.5.19. The character makeup room has an area of 20 m2 to 30 m2, equipped with cabinets, shelves for placing bottles and jars, costume racks, wig racks, washing basins, etc., located near the dressing rooms.

6.5.20. Quick costume change cabins have 2 to 3 cabins adjacent to the stage, each cabin measures 1.5 m x 1.5 m, made of light metal. In the cabin, there are racks for costumes, hats, wigs.

6.5.21. The costume storage for immediate use is arranged near the dressing rooms. The storage area is calculated for at least 3 plays, each spoken drama has 100 costumes; each opera or dance musical has 150 to 200 costumes. The standard storage floor area is 0.2 m2/set (including the service counter).

6.5.22. The instrument storage is arranged near the instrument tuning rooms, with an area of 50 m2. The room must have air conditioning equipment to control temperature and humidity, at least have a dehumidifier.

6.5.23. The sheet music storage has an area of 20 m2 to 30 m2 or equal to 1/3 of the orchestra pit floor area, arranged near the orchestra pit.

6.5.24. The costume ironing room is arranged near the costume changing rooms, with an area of 20 m2 to 30 m2. The walls, ceiling, and floor must be made of non-flammable materials.

6.5.25. The artistic direction and theater management rooms are arranged right in the stage service area, with the area specified in Table 10. All rooms must have internal telephones, city telephones, and loudspeakers or screens to monitor the performance on stage (except for meeting rooms, libraries, archives, organization and union rooms).

Table 10 – Area standards for artistic direction and theater management rooms

Function roomArea
1. Director’s room20
2. Assistant directors’ roomsfrom 15 to 20
3. Performance control roomfrom 10 to 12
4. Conductor’s room20
5. Choreography director’s room20
6. Head of art troupe’s roomfrom 15 to 20
7. Script author’s roomfrom 15 to 20
8. Press and information roomfrom 15 to 20
9. Theater director’s roomfrom 25 to 30
10. Deputy directors’ rooms, each roomfrom 10 to 20
11. Meeting roomfrom 40 to 60
12. Art roomfrom 12 to 15
13. Administrative, management, organization, finance, technical, union function rooms, etc.from 12 to 15
14. Libraryfrom 30 to 40
15. Archives, document management20

6.5.26. The rooms for technical workers, electrical and mechanical workers, set workers, etc. ensure the service space for 10 to 50 people, with an area standard of 2 m2/person, each room is designed for no more than 15 people. The rooms must have internal telephones. They can be arranged in the basement if there is a good ventilation solution but not arranged near the dressing rooms.

These rooms have a separate restroom area, not shared with the actors’ restroom area.

6.5.27. The room for the on-duty fire fighting staff must be near the fire alarm center, have internal and city telephones, wireless telephone extensions, and have 1 to 2 rest beds.

6.5.28. The shared restrooms are arranged for a large number of actors and those directly serving the performance, with the following sanitary fixture standards:


+ 25 people per toilet;

+ 25 people per urinal;

+ From 1 to 3 toilets have one hand washing basin;

+ 20 people per shower room.


+ 20 people per toilet;

+ 50 people per washing room;

+ From 1 to 3 toilets have one hand washing basin;

+ 20 people per shower room.

6.6. Technical rooms

6.6.1. The power supply for theaters – auditoriums is taken from two different high-voltage power sources through the theater’s own transformer station. The design of the station and equipment follows the relevant regulations.

The transformer station must be outside the theater building, if it is located inside the theater, it must directly contact the outside on at least one side. In Grade III theaters or Size D, E auditoriums, at least two transformer sets are arranged. Grade I, II theaters and Size A, B, C auditoriums arrange 3 to 4 transformer sets.

6.6.2. The stage – auditorium lighting control room is arranged at a position that covers the entire stage and most of the auditorium, with an area of 15 m2 to 20 m2 and must have an internal telephone.

6.6.3. The sound control room is located at the rear wall of the auditorium and can see the entire stage. The room area is 15 m2 to 20 m2.

6.6.4. The generator set must ensure automatic start-up of power generation just a few seconds after losing both grid power sources. The generator set room must be located outside the building or in the basement, in which case it must have a thorough sound insulation design on the walls, ceiling, floor, and have good ventilation conditions. The exhaust pipe must discharge directly to the outside.

6.6.5. The battery room to supply direct current to light the emergency escape lighting system when all power sources are lost or in case of fire and explosion has an area of 20 m2. The walls, ceiling, and floor must be made of acid-resistant materials, the room must be well-ventilated, with the wind blowing directly to the outside.

6.7. Warehouses and workshops

6.7.1. The warehouses that directly serve the daily performances are mandatory and can have an area scale that can be increased or decreased according to actual needs and conditions. The recommended area standards are specified in Table 11.

Table 11 – Area standards for warehouses directly serving daily performances

WarehouseLocation and size requirementsArea
1. Set warehouse for the current playLocated near the stage, at the same level as the stagefrom 100 to 200
2. Set warehouse included in the theater’s regular programMay not be at the same level as the stagefrom 200 to 300
3. Table and chair warehouseAt the same level as the stagefrom 30 to 40
4. Warehouse for various lights and spotlightsAt the same level as the stagefrom 15 to 20
5. Prop warehouseLocated near the stage, at the same level as the stagefrom 30 to 50
6. Rolled backdrop warehouse (besides the rolled backdrop storage racks under the stage)Requires narrow and long, the length is at least equal to the width of the stagefrom 25 to 60
Note: If the performance floor is not at the same level as the service warehouses, lifting equipment or winches are needed to transfer props and instruments.

6.7.2. Depending on specific requirements, warehouses that do not directly serve daily performances are arranged. The recommended area standards are specified in Table 12.

Table 12 – Area of warehouses not directly serving daily performances

WarehouseLocation requirementArea
1. Backdrop warehouseInside the theater, not near the stagefrom 30 to 50
2. Prop and furniture warehouseInside the theater, not near the stagefrom 30 to 60
3. Warehouse for lights, spotlights, audio and video equipmentInside the theater, not near the stagefrom 20 to 30

6.7.3. The theater’s general warehouses are places to store and preserve sets and props of plays that have finished or will be performed, arranged in the theater’s warehouse area, located outside the theater building area. The area standards are specified in Table 13.

NOTE: These warehouses are not necessarily required and do not have to be located within the theater area.

Table 13 – Area of general warehouses for storing sets and props

General warehouseArea
1. General set warehousefrom 200 to 500
2. General prop warehousefrom 50 to 100
3. General table, chair, and wooden furniture warehousefrom 150 to 300
4. General costume warehousefrom 150 to 300

6.7.4. The theater’s workshops

NOTE: These workshops do not necessarily have to be located within the theater area

a) The carpentry workshop is located in the warehouse area outside the theater building area, including the sawmill workshop, the processing workshop, and the assembly workshop. The total area of the carpentry workshop is from 100 m2 to 150 m2. The height of the assembly workshop is from 6 m to 9 m. Attached is a manager’s room of 10 m2, a rest room of 16 m2 to 20 m2 for 8 to 10 carpenters.

b) The mechanical and machining workshop has an area of 30 m2 with a length of not less than 7 m. Attached is a mechanical warehouse with an area of 30 m2 and a rest room of 12 m2 for 3 to 4 workers.

c) The painting workshop has an area equivalent to the stage area plus the surrounding walkways, with a height of not less than 5 m. On the wall, there are rails for mounting painting frames, the floor has drainage grooves for washing out colors. Attached to the painting workshop is a chief artist’s room with an area of 10 m2 and a rest room with an area of 10 m22 to 12 m2 for 4 to 6 painters.

d) The set design room is arranged near the painting workshop and has an area of 20 m2.

e) The men’s costume sewing workshop has an area of 30 m2 to 50 m2. The women’s costume sewing workshop has an area of 40 m2 to 80 m2, next to it there should be a costume fitting room, fabric storage, costume design room, each room is 20 m2.

7. Structural and technical requirements
7.1. The calculated dynamic load and reliability coefficient are specified in Table 14.

Table 14 – Dynamic load and reliability coefficient of components

Part, componentCalculated load
Reliability coefficient
Stage floor, performance floor5.01.3
Apron floor, rear stage, side stage4.01.3
Floor of rehearsal rooms, set assembly workshop, electrical and mechanical workshop, warehouses4.01.3
Floor of stage service rooms, dressing rooms, sound and lighting control rooms3.01.3
Water pumping station, transformer station, ventilation and air conditioning engine room, generator room, locations of stage operating motorsAccording to the specific load of the installed equipment, but not less than 4.01.3
Floor of catwalks, locations for operating winches, cables, counterweightsAccording to the specific load of the equipment, the maximum number of counterweights placed on the floor, but not less than 2.51.3
Floor of walkways for installing spotlightsAccording to the specific load of the equipment, plus 0.751.3
Floor of the gridiron above the fly towerAccording to the specific load of the equipment, plus 21.3
Basement floor, roof of stage and auditoriumAccording to the specific load of the equipment (if any) plus 0.751.4
Suspended structures for winches, battens, cablesAccording to the actual load, not less than the maximum number of counterweights1.3
Floor of the entire auditorium, including boxes, corridors, balconies, lobbies belonging to the audience area4.01.3
Management and administrative rooms2.01.4
Lateral push load on all railings, handrails, calculated in kg/meter long1.01.3
Pressure on fire curtain0.41.2

7.2. The maximum speed of movement of all moving equipment in the stage area must not exceed the speeds specified in Table 15.

Table 15 – Maximum allowable speed of moving equipment in the stage area

EquipmentMaximum allowable speed
1. Battens on stage1.5
2. Sliding floor on stage0.8
3. Lift tables, lift stages0.5
4. Back curtain at the end of the stage0.4
5. Revolving stage with diameter less than 12 m (Linear speed at the circumference of the revolving stage)1.3
6. Revolving stage with diameter greater than 12 m (Linear speed at the circumference of the revolving stage)1.0
7. Stage grid bridge (If designed to move up and down)0.3
8. Battens for hanging lights, light troughs on stage0.3
7.3. Sound requirements

7.3.1. There must not be sound defects such as sound convergence or echoes. There must not be two consecutive reflected sounds reaching the listener’s ears at any point in the auditorium with a difference of 0.05 s.

7.3.2. It must be ensured that the actual reverberation time of the room does not deviate by more than 10% from the best reverberation time. The best reverberation time is taken according to Chart 1 and Chart 2.

7.3.3. The actual reverberation time is calculated using the Sabine or Eyring formula in the design stage and measured on site when the construction is completed.

1. Rooms with pipe organs;
2. Symphony and choral concert halls;
3. Spoken drama theaters;
4. Chamber music halls;
5. Movie theaters;
6. Lecture halls, auditoriums

Chart 1 – Best reverberation time TTN for frequencies of 500Hz and above

The upper limit is for music listening rooms, the lower limit is for speech listening rooms

Chart 2 – Selection of TTN increase coefficient for frequencies below 500Hz

7.4. Background noise level in theaters – auditoriums

7.4.1. For theaters – auditoriums using natural sound, without electroacoustics. The requirement for background noise does not exceed 30 dbA (equivalent to NR-20).

7.4.2. For theaters – auditoriums using electroacoustics, the requirement for background noise does not exceed 35 dbA (equivalent to NR-30).

7.5. Microclimate comfort conditions

7.5.1. It is necessary to design ventilation in auditoriums to ensure hygiene requirements and microclimate comfort:

– Control the temperature in winter: from 22 °C to 26 °C;

– Control the temperature in summer: from 24 °C to 28 °C;

– Control the relative humidity: φ ≤ 80%;

– Permissible CO2 concentration in the auditorium: not greater than 0.2%.

7.5.2. Auditoriums under 400 seats must be designed with natural ventilation and a ceiling fan system. Auditoriums over 400 seats need to be designed with a mechanical ventilation air conditioning system.

7.6. Lighting requirements

7.6.1. It is allowed to design natural lighting for the auditorium through roof windows, light openings at high positions of the auditorium.

7.6.2. When designing artificial lighting, the illuminance requirements for auditorium spaces are specified in Table 16.

Table 16 – Minimum indoor illuminance

Room typeMinimum illuminance in the case of observation
Fluorescent lightIncandes-cent lightFluorescent lightIncandes-cent lightFluorescent lightIncandes-cent light
Theater auditorium15075100507530

7.6.3. Lighting and dimming the auditorium must be gradual, ensuring not to dazzle the audience’s eyes. The lighting control device should be placed centrally in the electrical room.

7.6.4. Lighting must be designed to disperse people in the auditorium. The minimum illuminance value on the surface of the floor (or floor) of walkways, stairs, etc. must not be less than 1 lux indoors and 2 lux outdoors.

7.6.5. Special attention must be paid to solutions for lightning protection, static electricity and electromagnetic induction protection, and protection against high voltage from lightning propagating along the low voltage power supply line system in the construction. The lightning protection design solution is taken according to TCVN 9385:2012.

7.7. Water supply and drainage requirements

7.7.1. The design of the internal and external water supply and drainage system for fire fighting and domestic use must comply with the relevant regulations.

7.7.2. When designing the water supply, it must be calculated according to the theater scale, the water supply standard for the audience is from 3 l/audience to 5 l/audience.

8. Fire safety requirements
8.1. General requirements

– The entire design of structures, materials in theaters – auditoriums and fire alarm devices, fire fighting equipment, etc. must comply with the fire safety regulations for buildings and constructions [2] and TCVN 2622:1995.

– At the intersections between fire compartments and enclosing structures, there must be solutions to ensure that fire does not spread through these fire compartments;

– Fire walls, used to divide into fire compartments, must be arranged along the height of the construction and must ensure that fire does not spread from the fire source side to the adjacent fire compartment.

8.2. Fire curtain

Theaters with auditoriums of Size B and above must have a fire curtain at the apron position;

Theaters with oversized auditoriums (1,500 seats or more) must have a fire curtain at the apron position and other positions where a large number of people can gather, such as foyers, cafeterias, dance halls.

8.3. Principles of escape design

8.3.1. Number of people that need to escape:

– For the audience area: 100% of the audience seats.

– For the stage area with the stage floor area: 2 m2/person.

8.3.2. In the basic design stage (construction investment project), the calculation standard for 100 audience members is 120 cm of exit door. The odd number up to 50 audience members is calculated as an additional 60 cm, the odd number from 50 to 100 audience members is calculated as an additional 120 cm.

The number of exit doors must be applied to each escape area on the principle of running away from the stage to the nearest door.

8.3.3. Maximum allowable escape time:

– Escape from the stage: 1.5 min;

– Escape from the auditorium: 2 min;

– Escape from the theater building: 6 min.

8.3.4. Calculation of escape time according to the following conditions:

– Speed of human flow between two rows of seats: 16 m/min;

– Speed of human flow horizontally in the auditorium after exiting the rows of seats: 16 m/min;

– Speed of human flow on stairs: 10 m/min;

NOTE: The length of the stairs, including the landing, is calculated as 2.5 times the height of the stairs.

– Speed of human flow after exiting the auditorium: 24 m/min;

– Maximum human flow capacity through doors or passageways 150 cm wide or less: 50 people/min;

– Maximum human flow capacity through doors or passageways wider than 150 cm: 60 people/min;

NOTE: For theaters – auditoriums specifically for children or theaters in areas with calculated earthquakes up to level VII or higher, the maximum allowable escape time must be reduced by 20%.

– From the stage or from each audience area, there must be at least 2 exits, 2 doors, 2 staircases;

– Elevators, escalators, doors that are regularly locked are not calculated as escape routes.

1. Light trough at the apron
2. Stage floor slope I = 1% to 1.5%
3. Sound reflector panel
Figure A.1 – Stage cross-section
4. Balcony opening for additional stage lighting
5. Sound system
Figure A.2 – Stage floor plan


[1] QCVN 03:2009/BXD – National technical regulation on classification and grading of civil and industrial constructions and urban technical infrastructure.

[2] QCVN 06:2010/BXD – National technical regulation on fire safety for buildings and constructions.

[3] TCXDVN 264:20021), Buildings and constructions – Basic principles for constructing buildings to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities.

1) TCVN to be issued soon