QCVN 02:2022/BXD

QCVN 02:2022/BXD National Technical Regulation on Natural Physical and Climatic Data for Construction

Foreword

QCVN 02:2022/BXD was developed under the lead of the Institute for Building Science and Technology (with the collaboration of the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, and the Vietnam Association of Building Environment), submitted for approval by the Department of Science, Technology and Environment, appraised by the Ministry of Science and Technology, and issued by the Ministry of Construction in conjunction with Circular No. 02/2022/TT-BXD dated September 26, 2022 by the Minister of Construction.

QCVN 02:2022/BXD replaces QCVN 02:2009/BXD, which was issued in conjunction with Circular No. 29/2009/TT-BXD dated August 14, 2009 by the Minister of Construction.

1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
1.1 Scope of regulation

1.1.1 This technical regulation specifies the natural condition data applied in the formulation, appraisal, and approval of construction activities including construction planning, development of construction investment projects, construction design, construction execution, construction supervision, and management of construction investment projects in Vietnam.

1.1.2 In certain specific cases, it is permitted to use wind data, earthquake data, and other natural condition data used in construction provided by competent state agencies such as: Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change or National Center for Hydro-Meteorological Forecasting – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology… for some specific projects with justifications, clearly stating the scientific basis of the applied data, and submitted to the Ministry of Construction.

1.2 Subjects of application

This regulation applies to organizations and individuals involved in construction activities in Vietnam.

1.3 Interpretation of terms

In this regulation, the following terms are understood as follows:

1.3.1 Tropical depression

A tropical cyclone with maximum wind speed from level 6 to level 7 and may have gusts.

1.3.2 Typhoon

A tropical cyclone with maximum wind speed from level 8 and above and may have gusts. Typhoons with maximum wind speed from level 10 to level 11 are called strong typhoons, from level 12 to level 15 are called very strong typhoons, and from level 16 and above are called super typhoons.

1.3.3 Epicenter

The vertical projection of the hypocenter onto the earth’s surface.

1.3.4 Hypocenter

The location of the source that generates an earthquake.

1.3.5 Intensity of surface shaking (denoted as I)

A quantity expressing the ability of shaking caused by an earthquake on the ground and assessed through its impact on buildings, structures, ground, objects, and people. In this regulation, the intensity of surface shaking is assessed according to the MSK-64 scale consisting of 12 levels (see Tables 6.3 and 6.4).

1.3.6 Thunderstorm

A phenomenon of strong convection in the atmosphere causing sudden electrical discharges accompanied by thunder and lightning.

1.3.7 Earthquake

The shaking of the earth’s surface due to the sudden release of energy in the earth’s crust in the form of seismic waves, which can cause deformation on the ground, destruction of buildings, structures, property, and human lives.

1.3.8 Earthquake magnitude (denoted as M)

A quantity characterizing the level of energy that an earthquake releases and transmits around in the form of elastic waves. In this regulation, the earthquake magnitude (denoted as M) is assessed using the Richter scale, with a value equal to the base-10 logarithm of the maximum amplitude (micron) of the horizontal component of the seismic wave on the recording of a standard Wood-Anderson short-period seismograph at a distance of 100 km from the epicenter.

1.3.9 Atmospheric salinity

The total amount of chloride salt in the air calculated according to the number of milligrams of Cl- ions deposited on 1 m2 of structure surface in a day (mg Cl-/m2 day).

1.3.10 Whirlwind

A whirling air current with wind strength equivalent to that of a typhoon but formed and dissipated in a short time, with a narrow range of activity from a few km2 to a few dozen km2 .

1.3.11 Flood

A phenomenon in which the river water level rises high for a certain period of time, then falls, in which: a) Historical flood is a flood with a peak rarely seen during the observation period or obtained through surveys; b) Exceptionally large flood is a flood with a peak rarely seen during the observation period; c) Abnormal flood is a flood occurring before or after the flood season or a flood formed due to heavy rain occurring in a small area, reservoir discharge, dam failure, dam overflow, dike failure, or dike overflow.

1.3.12 Flash flood

A flood occurring suddenly on small river and stream basins in mountainous areas, with rapid flow, often accompanied by mud and rocks, rising and falling quickly, with great destructive power.

1.3.13 Lightning density

The number of ground strikes per 1 km2 in a year.

1.3.14 Storm surge

The phenomenon of sea level rising higher than the normal tidal level due to the influence of typhoons.

1.3.15 Lightning

The phenomenon of electrical discharges within clouds, between clouds, or between clouds and the ground.

1.3.16 Tropical cyclone

A cyclonic wind area (diameter can reach hundreds of km) formed over tropical oceans, with winds blowing counterclockwise into the center, atmospheric pressure (air pressure) in the tropical cyclone lower than the surrounding, with rain, sometimes accompanied by thunderstorms, squalls, and whirlwinds.

1.4 Data in the regulation

1.4.1 The data in this regulation include: Climate data; weather and adverse natural phenomena data; lightning density; wind data used in design; and earthquake data used in design.

1.4.2 Other natural condition data used in construction may be provided by competent state agencies in accordance with legal provisions.

1.5 Data sources

1.5.1 Source of climate data (Chapter 2) The climate data in Chapter 2 are provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

1.5.2 Source of weather and adverse natural phenomena data (Chapter 3)

Weather and adverse natural phenomena data are compiled from data provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

  • Data on tides in the East Sea and the distribution of storm surge heights with a 5% assurance frequency are updated to 2016.
  • Data on atmospheric salinity are kept the same as the previous version.
  • Data on earthquake epicenters and seismogenic faults, and earthquake source zones are provided by the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.

1.5.3 Source of lightning density data (Chapter 4) Data on lightning density in Vietnam are provided by the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.

1.5.4 Source of wind data (Chapter 5) Wind data in Vietnam are provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

1.5.5 Source of earthquake data (Chapter 6) Data on earthquakes in Vietnam are provided by the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.

2 CLIMATE DATA USED IN CONSTRUCTION
2.1 Climate characteristics of Vietnam

2.1.1 Climate seasons

Vietnam belongs to the humid tropical monsoon climate zone. The territory of Vietnam is divided into two regions, North and South, with different climates:

a) Northern region (from 16 degrees north latitude, parallel to the Hai Van Pass, northward): Has a cold winter. The cold month in the delta region has an average temperature of 10 ºC to 15 ºC.

b) Southern region (from 16 degrees north latitude, parallel to the Hai Van Pass, southward): Has no cold winter. The delta region is hot all year round and clearly divided into two seasons: rainy season and dry season. The rainy season lasts from May to October, and the dry season from November to April.

2.1.2 Sunshine, air temperature, solar radiation

a) Sunshine: Throughout the territory, the sunshine duration is long. The average number of sunshine hours in a year: Less than 2,000 hours in the North, more than 2,000 hours in the South.

b) Air temperature: The North has an average annual temperature commonly below 24 ºC; the South has an average annual temperature commonly from 24 ºC to 28 ºC.

c) Solar radiation: Abundant radiation. The average annual total radiation in the North is greater than 586 kJ/cm2 ; in the South, less than 586 kJ/cm2 .

2.1.3 Air humidity and weather seasons

Throughout the territory, the relative humidity of the air is high all year round: from 76% to 88%. In some places, during a certain period of time, there may be large changes in air humidity due to the influence of some special weather phenomena.

a) Drizzle and cold, damp period: In the North, during the winter monsoon period (northeast monsoon), there is often damp and wet drizzle, with high relative humidity, sometimes saturated. However, there are times when the northeast monsoon is accompanied by dry weather with low humidity occurring for a few days to a few weeks.

b) Humid, foggy weather: In the eastern region of the North and the coastal areas of the Central region, during the late winter and early spring (from February to April), there is often humid, foggy weather, with air temperatures from 20 ºC to 25 ºC and very high relative humidity, above 95%, sometimes saturated.

c) Hot and dry weather: In the low-lying areas hidden to the east of the Truong Son mountain range and the valleys of the Northwest region, during the summer, there are hot and dry winds blowing in the west, northwest, and southwest directions with an activity duration of 10 to 30 days in a year. The weather becomes hot and dry, with temperatures above 35 ºC and relative humidity below 55%.

2.1.4 Rain, snow

Throughout the territory, the amount of rain and the duration of rain are relatively large, averaging from 1,100 mm to 4,800 mm and from 100 days to 223 days. Rain is unevenly distributed and concentrated in the rainy months. Many rainstorms have high intensity, many consecutive and prolonged rainy spells, causing floods. Throughout the territory, there is no snow except for a few times a year and on a few high mountains in the North.

2.1.5 Construction climate zoning

2.1.5.1 Construction climate zoning

The territory of Vietnam is divided into 7 construction climate zones (Figure 2.1):

(1) Northwest region (zone I);

(2) Midland – mountainous region of North Vietnam and Northeast (zone II);

(3) Red River Delta region (zone III);

(4) North Central region (zone IV);

(5) South Central region (zone V);

(6) Central Highlands region (zone VI);

(7) Southern region (Zone VII).

2.1.5.2 Characteristics of Vietnam’s construction climate zones

a) Zone I – Northwest region: Separated by the Hoang Lien Son mountain range with the boundary line located on the eastern slope along the isoline of the heat balance index CCN1,I= -350 cal/min (briefly called the CCN1,I isoline). This mountain range is also the boundary dividing the influence of “cold dry” weather and “humid foggy” weather during the spring period between the two mountainous regions of the North. Due to the different influences of these two phenomena, it has led to differences in the degree of heat and cold over a long period of the first half of the year. These are factors that have a certain impact on architectural solutions. However, due to the fairly large average altitude, the basic climatic characteristic of this region is still a region with a cold winter, with cold protection solutions dominating. This region simultaneously exists all 3 climatic belts according to altitude. The climate of the Northwest mountainous region is bounded to the south by the mountainous region in the west of Hoa Binh province, due to the direct impact of polar air after passing through the Red River Delta over most of Hoa Binh province, bringing here the basic characteristics of the climate of the eastern region and the Red River Delta region with the existence of the “humid foggy” season and low temperatures in winter.

b) Zone II – Midland – mountainous region of North Vietnam and Northeast: This is the region to the east of Hoang Lien Son, separated by the isoline CCN1,I = -350 cal/min combined with the isoline CCNVII = 600 cal/min. This is the region with the coldest winter compared to the whole country, although in reality there are still very low temperatures in the high mountainous regions of the Northwest, but at the same altitude, the temperature in this region is significantly higher. At the same altitude, the cold protection measure in the Northeast is the most important. Being a mountainous region, the climate is strongly differentiated according to the topographic altitude, and all 3 climatic belts exist in the region.

c) Zone III – Red River Delta region: This is the region with a lower degree of cold in winter compared to the Northeast region but higher than the Northwest and North Central regions. It is bounded by the isolines CCN1,I = -350 cal/min and ∆CCNyear = 1,000 cal/min to the north and west. It is separated from the North Central region by the influence of hot and dry weather due to the influence of the hot and dry west wind (Lao wind), divided by the equivalent heat-humidity index CSAIV-VII greater than 2 and CSAVII greater than 2, and the number of “hot and dry” days in the whole year less than 10. This is a region with a hot and humid summer but almost no influence from the hot and dry west wind. Throughout the region, the climate is quite homogeneous, strongly influenced by typhoons and other sea characteristics.

d) Zone IV – North Central region: Bounded to the south by the regional boundary line, characterized by the gradual weakening of the degree of cold in winter, strongly influenced by hot and dry weather during the spring-summer period. This region has a significant difference in the rainy-humid season compared to the Red River Delta region, with CSAIV-VII less than 2 and CSAVII less than 2. The terrain is not homogeneous, with the influence of topographic altitude, mainly the low mountain climate belt and a small part belonging to the mid-mountain climate belt. Most of this part lies to the east of the Truong Son range, receiving the northeast monsoon and sea winds, but there are also some valley and low mountain areas hidden behind higher mountain masses to the east, so there are some characteristics of the western climate such as the westernmost areas of Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Quang Tri, and Thua Thien Hue provinces. The North Central region is an area heavily affected by the hot and dry west wind phenomenon from April to September every year, causing harsh dry and hot weather conditions. During the active period of the hot and dry west wind, the lowest humidity can drop to 30% and the highest temperature can reach 43 ºC. In contrast, in the last months of the year (from October to December), due to the influence of the northeast monsoon and disturbances at sea, this area often experiences heavy and concentrated rainfall.

e) Zone V – South Central region: Separated from the Southern Delta mainly due to the impact of hot and dry weather, based on humidity criteria (CSA > 2) and the number of days with hot and dry weather (NKN > 10). The climate in this region is not truly homogeneous, with differentiation according to altitude. Most of the mountainous areas belong to the low mountain climate belt, a small part belongs to the mid-mountain belt, and all of them are located on the eastern side. The western boundary is mainly based on the line CCN1,0 = 0 cal/min, and the southern part is the boundary line of the influence level of the hot and dry west wind (the number of hot and dry days caused by the Lao wind is greater than 10 days). It is the area dividing the difference in the rainy season and the degree of humidity due to the different consequences of the southwest monsoon. This boundary line is located roughly between Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan provinces, almost completely separating Binh Thuan into the Southern climate zone.

f) Zone VI – Central Highlands region: Separated by the isoline ∆CCNyear = 700 cal/min, CCN1,I = 0. Polar air in winter but still has a fairly cold winter in many areas (CCNI < 0 cal/min, CCN1,I < 0 cal/min) due to the influence of topographic altitude. In the Central Highlands, there is no significant difference in the degree of cold in winter, but the difference between the cold season and the hot season is very small, that is, there is only one thermal season per year. Being a mountainous region, the Central Highlands also has all 3 climate belts with wide plateaus having a fairly homogeneous climate according to the characteristics of the corresponding altitude belts. Due to the western slope, the Central Highlands is not affected by the “Lao wind” causing hot and dry weather.

g) Zone VII – Southern region: Separated from the above two regions by the southern boundary line of the Central Highlands climate zone and the coastal area of the South Central region. This is a region with a fairly homogeneous climate, bearing the typical characteristics of a tropical monsoon climate. Heat protection is the most important object in preventive solutions for construction works. Particularly for the sea area, the islands are grouped into the climate zones that have been divided on the mainland with nearly similar climate conditions. The islands located north of latitude 20.83°N are grouped into the Northeast climate zone. The islands located between the above latitude and latitude 16.83°N are grouped into the Red River Delta or North Central climate zones.

2.2 Using data from Chapter 2

2.2.1 Chapter 2 provides measured data at meteorological stations. When using, it is necessary to take data from the meteorological stations closest to the construction site (Figure 2.2). In addition, it is necessary to refer to the actual climate data at the construction site, especially in the following cases:

a) The construction site is located at an altitude that is significantly different from the altitude of the meteorological station;

b) The construction site is located in a terrain with factors affecting climate data such as: Mountains, hills, plateaus, valleys, rivers, streams, large lakes, sea.

If the actual data falls outside the values provided in this regulation or the data falls outside the scope of the regulation, it is necessary to contact the competent state agency to obtain official data.

When necessary, these data can be separately surveyed and researched according to the standards applicable to the project or other requirements (if any).

2.2.2 When designing structures subjected to wind loads (including the development of construction methods), the wind data in this chapter shall not be applied, but the data provided in Chapter 5 must be used.

CONSTRUCTION CLIMATE ZONING MAP

NOTE: This is a scaled-down version of the 1:1,000,000 map developed and provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

Figure 2.1 – Construction climate zoning map

VIETNAM METEOROLOGICAL STATION NETWORK

NOTE: This is a scaled-down version of the 1:1,000,000 map developed and provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

Figure 2.2 – Map of the distribution of the meteorological station network on a national scale

3 WEATHER DATA AND ADVERSE NATURAL PHENOMENA
3.1 Typhoons

A typhoon is a tropical cyclone with a maximum wind speed of level 8 or higher and may have gusts. Typhoons with maximum wind speeds from level 10 to level 11 are called strong typhoons, from level 12 to level 15 are called very strong typhoons, and from level 16 and above are called super typhoons.

Typhoons are particularly dangerous weather phenomena, causing strong winds that can blow off roofs and collapse houses, accompanied by heavy rain causing serious flooding. Table B.2 specifies the wind levels and hazard levels of typhoons.

In Vietnam, the annual typhoon season is from June to November, with the frequency of typhoons gradually decreasing from North to South. The usual occurrence times are as follows (Table B.1):

  • From June to September, typhoons frequently make landfall in the Quang Ninh – Thanh Hoa sea area;
  • From July to October, typhoons frequently make landfall in the Nghe An – Quang Binh sea area;
  • From August to November, typhoons frequently make landfall in the Quang Tri – Phu Yen sea area;
  • From October to December, typhoons frequently make landfall in the Khanh Hoa – Ca Mau sea area.

The statistics of typhoons making landfall in Vietnam’s coastal regions (1961 – 2017) are shown in Table B.3.

3.2 Whirlwinds

Whirlwinds are swirling wind currents with wind strength equivalent to that of typhoons but are formed and dissipated in a short time, with a narrow range of activity from hundreds of m2 to a few dozen km2 .

Whirlwinds are dangerous weather phenomena, causing swirling winds that rise high, blow off roofs, and collapse houses, especially simple houses.

According to data provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Table B.4): In the North, whirlwinds often occur during the transitional periods from winter-spring to summer (April, May), whenever a cold air mass appears. Due to climate change, whirlwinds also occur in the Central and Southern regions.

3.3 Floods

3.3.1 Floods occur during the rainy season when heavy rainstorms pour water strongly into rivers and streams, causing dike failures or overflowing, resulting in widespread flooding of houses and construction sites.

3.3.2 The flood season is a continuous period within a year, during which floods usually occur in the following periods:

  • On rivers in the North, from June 15 to October 31;
  • On rivers from Thanh Hoa province to Ha Tinh province, from July 1 to November 30;
  • On rivers from Quang Binh province to Ninh Thuan province, from September 1 to December 15;
  • On rivers in Binh Thuan province, provinces in the South, and the Central Highlands, from June 15 to November 30.

Historical floods (1945 – 2007) are recorded by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in Table B.5.

3.4 Flash floods

3.4.1 Flash floods are particularly dangerous hydrological phenomena. In some cases, they have devastating destructive power and become natural disasters. Flash floods often occur in mountainous areas, where there are high mountains interspersed with valleys and low rivers and streams, the stability of the soil layer on the watershed surface is weak due to strong weathering processes, and the vegetation cover is destroyed.

3.4.2 Flash flood events over the years (1958 – 2017) are recorded by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in Table B.6.

3.4.3 The localities prone to flash floods are: Bac Kan, Binh Dinh, Binh Thuan, Cao Bang, Dak Lak, Ha Giang, Lai Chau, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Khanh Hoa, Phu Tho, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Son La, Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang, Thua Thien Hue, Yen Bai.

3.5 Thunderstorms and lightning

3.5.1 Thunderstorms are classified as dangerous weather because lightning in thunderstorms can cause death, forest fires, house fires, and damage to power transmission lines, machinery equipment, especially electronic and telecommunications equipment. Thunderstorms and lightning in Vietnam occur year-round but are usually more frequent in the summer, especially in mountainous or lake areas during hot and humid months.

3.5.2 The average monthly and annual number of days with thunderstorms at meteorological stations is given in Table A.33. The map of average annual lightning strike density in Vietnam, established by the Institute of Geophysics, is presented in Chapter 4 of this regulation.

3.6 Earthquakes

3.6.1 Strong earthquakes can destroy houses and structures, causing serious damage to people and property.

3.6.2 The earthquake epicenters and seismogenic faults in Vietnam are shown on the map in Figure 3.3.

3.7 Marine hydrology

3.7.1 Marine hydrological phenomena that can adversely affect houses and construction works in Vietnam’s sea areas are tidal regimes, storm surges, and wave heights during typhoons.

3.7.2 The tidal map of the East Sea and the map of the distribution of storm surge heights with a 5% assurance frequency are shown in Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2. The average wave heights corresponding to wind levels are referenced in Table B.2.

3.8 Atmospheric salinity

3.8.1 Salinity in the atmosphere of coastal, marine, and island areas, combined with high humidity, causes strong corrosion of steel structures, metal structures, reinforced concrete structures, and prestressed concrete structures in Vietnam.

3.8.2 The zoning map of atmospheric salinity is given in Figure 3.4. The distribution of atmospheric salinity for different parts of Vietnam is as follows:

– North and Central regions (from 16 degrees north latitude and above):

[Cl] = 0.9854 X-0.17 , error ± 16% (3.1)

– Central and Southern regions (from 16 degrees north latitude and below):

[Cl] = 3.9156 X-0.22 , error ± 23% (3.2)

where:

[Cl] – atmospheric salinity, mgCl/m2 day;

X – Distance from the sea to the shore, km.

3.9 Using data from Chapter 3

The use of this data depends on the standards applicable to the project at each stage of design and construction.

When necessary, weather data and adverse natural phenomena data need to be provided by competent state agencies or need to be researched and surveyed based on design standards and tasks or other requirements (if any).

EAST SEA TIDAL MAP

NOTE: This is a scaled-down version of the 1:1,000,000 map developed and provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

Figure 3.1 – Tidal map of the East Sea

MAXIMUM STORM SURGE MAP

NOTE: This is a scaled-down version of the 1:1,000,000 map developed and provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

Figure 3.2 – Map of the distribution of storm surge heights with a 5% assurance frequency

NOTE: This is a scaled-down version of the 1:1,000,000 map developed and provided by the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.

Figure 3.3 – Map of earthquake epicenters and seismogenic faults in Vietnam

ATMOSPHERIC SALINITY ZONING MAP

NOTE: This is a scaled-down version of the 1:1,000,000 map developed and provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

Figure 3.4 – Atmospheric salinity zoning map

4 LIGHTNING DENSITY DATA
4.1 Characteristics of lightning density data

4.1.1 Lightning density data in Vietnam are provided in the form of a map (Figure 4.1) and by administrative location down to the district level or equivalent (Table 4.1).

4.1.2 The zoning map of average annual lightning density (number of strikes/km2 /year) in Vietnam (Figure 4.1) is divided into zones with the following isolines: Less than 1.4; from 1.4 to 3.4; from 3.4 to 5.7; from 5.7 to 8.2; from 8.2 to 10.9; from 10.9 to 13.7; and greater than 13.7.

4.1.3 Lightning density data by administrative location are established based on the average annual lightning density map of Vietnam according to the following principles:

a) For locations that fall entirely within a zone with the same lightning density on the map, the lightning density of that map zone is applied.

b) For districts with isolines passing through, the lightning density is taken according to the value of the nearest higher isoline that the zones within the district may be affected by.

4.2 Using lightning density data in design

4.2.1 When designing lightning protection for structures, it is necessary to base on the lightning density at the construction site according to the data of this regulation. In addition, it must be based on other factors including the lightning protection requirements of the structure, the characteristics of the structure (type of structure, height of the structure, function of use), the terrain where the structure is built, and the distance to trees or other structures.

4.2.2 The lightning density on islands is taken from 2.5 strikes/km2 /year to 7.0 strikes/km2 /year.

THUNDERSTORM ZONING MAP OF VIETNAM Scale 1:1,000,000

NOTE: This is a scaled-down version of the 1:1,000,000 map developed and provided by the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Figure 4.1 – Average annual lightning density map of Vietnam Table 4.1 – Lightning density by administrative location in Vietnam

Figure 4.1 – Map of average annual lightning density in the territory of Vietnam

Table 4.1 – Lightning density by administrative locality in the territory of Vietnam

Tinh, CityCity, Town, Quan, Rural DistrictLightning density (times/km2/year)
1. An GiangC. Long Xuyen, C. Chau Doc, T. Tan Chau, RD. An Phu, RD. Chau Phu, RD. Chau Thanh, RD. Cho Moi, RD. Tan Phu, RD. Thoai Son, RD. Tri Ton, RD. Tinh Bien13,7
2. Ba Ria – Vung TauC. Vung Tau, C. Ba Ria, RD. Con Dao, RD. Long Dien, RD. Dat Do, RD. Xuyen Moc8,2
RD. Tan Thanh, RD. Chau Duc10,9
3. Bac KanC. Bac Kan, RD. Ba Be, RD. Bach Thung, RD. Cho Moi, RD. Na Ro, RD. Ngon Son, RD. Pac Nam8,2
RD. Cho Don10,9
4. Bac GiangC. Bac Giang, RD. Hiep Hoa, RD. Lang Giang, RD. Luc Nam, RD. Luc Ngan, RD. Son Dong, RD. Tan Yen, RD. Viet Yen, RD. Yen Dung, RD. Yen The8,2
5. Bac NinhC. Bac Ninh, RD. Gia Binh, RD. Luong Tai, RD. Que Vu, RD. Yen Phong8,2
C. Tu Son, RD. Tien Du, RD. Thoan Thanh10,9
6. Bac LieuC. Bac Lieu10,9
T. Gia Rai, RD. Dong Hai, RD. Hong Dan, RD. Phuoc Long, RD. Vinh Loi, RD. Hoa Binh13,7
7. Ben TreC. Ben Tre, RD. Chau Thanh, RD. Cho Loch, RD. Giong Trum, RD. Mo Cay Nam, RD. Mo Cay Bac13,7
RD. Thanh Phu, RD. Ba Tri, RD. Binh Dai10,9
8. Binh DinhC.Quy Nhon, RD. Tuy Phuoc5,7
RD. An Loi, T. An Nhon, RD. Hoai An, T. Hoai Nhon, RD. Phu Cat, RD. Phu My, RD. Tay Son, RD. Van Canh, RD. Vinh Thanh8,2
9. Binh DuongC. Thu Dau Mot, C. Di An, T. Ton UYen, C. Thoan An, RD. Bac Ton UYen13,7
T. Ben Cot, RD. Dau Tieng, RD. Phu Gioo, RD. Bau Bang14,9
10. Binh PhuocC. Dong Xoai, T. Binh Long, RD. Chon Thanh, RD. Dong Phu, RD. Hon Quan14,9
RD. Bu Dop, RD. Bu Dang, RD. Loc Ninh, T. Phuoc Long, RD. Bu Gia Map13,7
11. Binh ThuanC. Phan Thiet, T. La Gi, RD. Ham Ton, RD. Ham Thoan Bac, RD. Ham Thoan Nam, RD. Tonh Linh8,2
RD. Duc Linh10,9
RD. Phu Quy7,0
RD. Bac Binh5,7
RD. Tuy Phong3,4
12. Ca MauC. Ca Mau, RD. U Minh, RD. Thai Binh, RD. Tran Van Thoi, RD. Cai Nuoc, RD. Dam Doi, RD. Phu Tan, RD. Nam Can, RD. Ngoc Hien13,7
13. Cao BangC. Cao Bang, RD. Bao Lac, RD. Bao Lom, RD. Ha Quang, RD. Ha Lang, RD. Hoa An, RD. NguYen Binh, RD. Phuc Hoa, RD. Quang UYen, RD. Thach An, RD. Thung Nung, RD. Tra Linh, RD. Trung Khanh9,2
14. Can ThoD. Binh Thuy, D. Coi Rang, D. Ninh Kieu, D. O Mon, RD. Co Do, RD. Phong Dien, D. Thot Not, RD. Vinh Thanh, RD. Thoi Lai13,7
15. Da NangD. Cam Le, D. Hai Chau, D. Lien Chieu, D. Ngu Hanh Son, D. Son Tra, D. Thanh Khe, RD. Hoa Vang8,2
RD. Hoang Sa7,0
16. Dak LakC. Buon Ma Thuot, T. Buon Ho, RD. Buon Don, RD. Ea Sup, RD. Cu M’Gar, RD. Ea H’Leo, RD. Krong Buk, RD. Krong Nang13,7
RD. Krong Pak, RD. Krong Ana, RD. Lak, RD. Krong Bong, RD. Ea Kar, RD. Cu Kuin10,9
RD. M’Drak8,2
17. Dien BienC. Dien Bien Phu, RD. Dien Bien, RD. Dien Bien Dong8,2
T. Muong Lay, RD. Muong Cha, RD. Muong Nhe, RD. Tua Choa, RD. Tuan Giao, RD. Muong Ang, RD. Nam Po10,9
18. Dak NongC. Gia Nghia, RD. Krung Nu10,9
RD. Dak Mil, RD. Dak R’ Lap, RD. Dak Song, RD. Cu Jut, RD. Tuy Duc, RD. Dak Glong13,7
19. Dong NaiC. Bien Hoa, RD. Long Thanh, RD. Nhon Trach, RD. Vinh Cuu, RD. Trang Bom13,7
C. Long Khanh, RD. Tan Phu, RD. Dinh Quan, RD. Thong Nhat10,9
RD. Xuan Loc, RD. Cam My8,2
20. Dong ThapC. Cao Lonh, RD. Lap Vu, C. Sa Dec, RD. Tan Hong, RD. Tam Nong, RD. Thap Muoi, T. Hong Ngu, RD. Cao Lonh, RD. Thanh Binh, RD. Lai Vung, RD. Chau Thanh, RD. Hong Ngu13,7
21. Gia LaiT. An Khe, RD. Chu Pah, RD. Ia Grai, RD. Mang Yang, RD. Dac Doa, RD. Dac Po, RD. Kong Chro8,2
C. Pleiku, RD. K’Bang, RD. Ia Pa, RD. Duc Co, RD. Krong Pa10,9
RD. Chu Prong, RD. Chu Se, T. Ayun Pa, RD. Chu Puh13,7
22. Ha GiangC. Ha Giang, RD. Bac Mo, RD. Bac Quang, RD. Quan Ba, RD. Vi XuYen,10,9
RD. Hoang Su Pho, RD. Moo Vac, RD. Quang Binh, RD. Xon Man, RD. Dong Van, RD. Yen Minh8,2
23. Ha NamC. Phu Ly, RD. Kim Bang, RD. Thanh Liem, T. Duy Tien10,9
RD. Binh Luc, RD. Ly Nhon8,2
24. Ha NoiD. Ba Donh, D. Cau Giay, D. Dong Da, D. Hai Ba Trung, D. Hoang Mai, D. Hoan Kiem, D. Long Bien, D. Tay Ho, D. Thanh Xuan, D. Bac Tu Liem, D. Nam Tu Liem, RD. Gia Lam, RD. Thanh Tro, RD. Dong Anh, D. Ha Dong, T. Son Tay , RD. Ba Vo, RD. Chuong My, RD. My Duc, RD. Phu Xuyen, RD. Thanh Oai, RD. Thuong Tin, RD. Ung Hoa10,9
RD. Soc Son, RD. Phuc Tho, RD. Dan Phuong, RD. Thach That, RD. Quoc Oai, RD. Hoai Duc, RD. Me Linh8,2
25. Ha TinhC. Ha Tinh, RD. Cam Xuyen, RD. Can Loc, RD. Duc Tho, RD. Huong Son, T. Ky Anh, RD. Nghi Xuan, RD. Thach Ha, RD. Vu Quang, RD. Ky Anh, T. Hong Linh, RD. Loc Ha8,2
RD. Huong Khe10,9
26. Hau GiangRD. Chau Thanh, RD. Phung Hiep10,9
C. Vi Thanh, RD. Vi Thuy, RD. Long My, RD. Chau ThanhA, T. Long My, T. Ngo Bay13,7
27. Hai DuongC. Hai Duong, RD. Binh Giang, RD. Cam Giàng, C. Cho Linh, RD. Gia Loc, RD. Nam Soch, RD. Ninh Giang, RD. Thanh Mien8,2
T. Kinh Mun, RD. Kim Thanh, RD. Thanh Ha, RD. Tu Ky10,9
28. Hai PhongD. Hong Bang, D. Kien An, D. Le Chan, D. Ngo Quyen, RD. An Duong, RD. An Loi, RD. Bach Long Vi, RD. Thuy NguYen, D. Duong Kinh10,9
D. Hai An, D. Do Son, RD. Tien Long, RD. Vinh Bao, RD. Kien Thuy, RD. Cot Hai8,2
29. Hoa BinhC. Hoa Binh, RD. Da Bac, RD. Kim Boi, Ky Son, RD. Lac Thuy, RD. Luong Son, RD. Mai Chau10,9
RD. Cao Phong, RD. Tan Lac, RD. Lac Son, RD. Yen Thuy13,7
30. Hung YenC. Hung Yen, RD. Phu Cu, RD. Tien Lu8,2
RD. An Thi, RD. Khoai Chau, RD. Kim Dong, T. My Hao, RD. Van Giang, RD. Van Lam, RD. Yen My10,9
31. Khanh HoaC. Nha Trang3,4
C. Cam Ranh, RD. Dien Khanh, RD. Van Ninh, T. Ninh Hoa, RD. Cam Lom5,7
RD. Khanh Son, RD. Khanh Vinh8,2
RD. Truong Sa7,0
32. Kien GiangC. Rach Gio, C. Ha Tien, RD. An Bien, RD. An Minh, RD. Chau Thanh, RD. Giong Rieng, RD. Gu Quao, RD. Hun Dat, RD. Kien Hai, RD. Kien Luong, RD. Tan Hiep, RD. Vinh Thoan, RD. Giang Thanh, RD. U Minh Thuong13,7
RD. Phu Quoc7,0
33. Kon TumC. Kom Tum, RD. Kon Plong, RD. Kon Ray, RD. Dak Glei, RD. Dak Ha, RD. Sa Thay, RD. Ia H’Drai8,2
RD. Dak To, RD. Ngoc Hoi, RD. Tu Mo Rong5,7
34. Lam DongC. Da Lat, RD. Dam Rong, RD. Don Duong, RD. Duc Trong, RD. Lam Ha10,9
C. Bao Loc, RD. Bao Lom, RD. Cot Tien, RD. Di Linh8,2
RD. Da Huoai, RD. Da Teh5,7
RD. Lac Duong13,7
35. Lao CaiC. Lao Cai, T. Sa Pa, RD. Bac Ha, RD. Bat Xat, RD. Muong Khuong, RD. Si Ma Cai8,2
RD. Bao Thang, RD. Bao Yen, RD. Van Ban10,9
36. Lang SonC. Lang Son, RD. Bac Son, RD. Binh Gia, RD. Cao Loc, RD. Chi Lang, RD. Donh Lap, RD. Huu Lung, RD. Loc Binh, RD. Trang Dinh, RD. Van Long, RD. Van Quan8,2
37. Lai ChauC. Lai Chau, RD. Muong Te, RD. Phong Tho, RD. Son Ho, RD. Tam Duong, RD. Than Uyen, RD. Nam Nhun, RD. Tan Uyen8,2
38. Long AnC. Tan An, RD. Ben Luc, RD. Can Duoc, RD. Can Guoc, RD. Chau Thanh, RD. Duc Hoa, RD. Ton Tru, RD. Ton Hung, RD. Tan Thanh, RD. Thu Thoa13,7
RD. Duc Hue, RD. Moc Hoa, RD. Thanh Hoa, RD. Vinh Hung14,9
39. Nam DinhC. Nam Dinh, RD. Giao Thuy, RD. Hai Hau, RD. My Loc, RD. Nam Truc, RD. Nghia Hung, RD. Truc Ninh, RD. Vu Ban, RD. Xuan Truong, RD. i Yen8,2
40. Nghe AnC. Vinh, T. Cua Lu, T. Hoang Mai, T. Thoi Hoa, RD. Hung Nguyen, RD. Nam Dan, RD. Thanh Chuong, RD. Do Luong, RD. Yen Thanh, RD. Quynh Luu, RD. Dien Chau, RD. Nghi Loc8,2
RD. Anh Son, RD. Con Cuong, RD. Nghia Dan, RD. Tan Ky, RD. Tuong Duong, RD. Ky Son, RD. Que Phong10,9
RD. Quy Chau, RD. Quy Hop13,7
41. Ninh BinhC. Ninh Binh, C. Tam Diep, RD. Hoa Lu, RD. Kim Son, RD. Yen Khanh, RD. Yen Mo8,2
RD. Gia Vien, RD. Nho Quan10,9
42. Ninh ThuanC. Phan Rang – Thap Cham, RD. Ninh Phuoc, RD. Thoan Nam1,4
RD. Bac Ai, RD. Ninh Son, RD. Thoan Bac5,7
RD. Ninh Hai3,4
43. Phu ThoC. Viet Tro, T. Phu Tho, RD. Doan Hung, RD. Ha Hoa, RD. Lam Thao, RD. Phu Ninh, RD. Cam Khe, RD. Tam Nong, RD. Thanh Ba, RD. Thanh Son, RD. Thanh Thuy, RD. Yen Lap, RD. Tan Son10,9
44. Phu YenC. Tuy Hoa3,4
RD. Dong Xuan, RD. Song Hinh, RD. Son Hoa8,2
RD. Phu Hoa, T. Sung Cau, RD. Tuy An, RD. Toi Hoa, RD. Dong Hoa5,7
45. Quang BinhC. Dong Hoi, T. Ba Don, RD. Bo Trach, RD. Le Thuy, RD. Minh Hoa, RD. Quang Ninh, RD. Quang Trach8,2
RD. Tuyen Hoa10,9
46. Quang NamC. Tam Ky, C. Hoi An, RD. Bac Tra My, RD. Duy Xuyen, RD. Dai Loc, T. Dien Ban, RD. Nam Tra My, RD. Phu Ninh, RD. Nui Thanh, RD. Que Son, RD. Thang Binh, RD. Tien Phuoc, RD. Hiep Duc8,2
RD. Dong Giang, RD. Nam Giang, RD. Phuoc Son, RD. Tay Giang, RD. Nong Son10,9
47. Quang NgaiC. Quang Ngai, RD. Binh Son, T. Duc Pho, RD. Ly Son, RD. Mo Duc, RD. Nghia Hanh, RD. Tu Nghia, RD. Son Tinh8,2
RD. Ba To, RD. Minh Long, RD. Son Ha, RD. Son Tay, RD. Tra Bong10,9
48. Quang NinhC. Ha Long, C. Uong Bi, T. Dong Trieu, T. Quang Uyen, RD. Binh Lieu8,2
C. Mong Cai, RD. Ba Che, RD. Co To, RD. Dam Ha, RD. Hai Ha, RD. Hoanh Bo, RD. Tien Yen, RD. Van Do, C. Cam Pha10,9
49. Quang TriC. Dong Ha, RD. Cam Lo, RD. Con Co, RD. Gio Linh, RD. Huong Hoa, RD. Vinh Linh8,2
T. Quang Tri, RD. Da Krong, RD. Hai Lang, RD. Trieu Phong10,9
50. Son LaC. Son La, RD. Bac Yen, RD. Mai Son, RD. Moc Chau, RD. Muong La, RD. Phu Yen, RD. Quynh Nhai, RD. Song Mo, RD. Sop Cop, RD. Thoan Chau, RD. Yen Chau, RD. Von Ho10,9
51. Soc TrangC. Soc Trang, RD. Cu Lao Dung, RD. Ke Sach, RD. Long Phu, RD. My Xuyen, T. Vinh Chau, RD. Tran De10,9
RD. My Ty, T. Ngo Nam, RD. Thanh Tri, H Chau Thanh13,7
52. Toi NinhC. Toi Ninh, RD. Chau Thanh, T. Hoa Thanh, RD. Ton Bien, RD. Ton Chau13,7
RD. Gu Dau, T. Trang Bang, RD. Ben cau, RD. Duong Minh Chau14,9
53. Thai BinhC. Thai Binh, RD. Dong Hung, RD. Hung Ha, RD. Kien Xuang, RD. Quynh Phu, RD. Thai Thuy, RD. Tien Hai, RD. Vu Thu8,2
54. Thai NguyenC. Thai Nguyen, RD. Dinh Hoa, RD. Dong Hy, T. Pho Yen, RD. Phu Binh, RD. Phu Luong, RD. Vu Nhai, C. Sung Cung, RD. Dai Tu8,2
55. Thanh HoaC. Thanh Hoa, T. Bim Son, C. Sam Son, RD. Dong Son, RD. Ha Trung, RD. Hau Loc, RD. Hoang Hoa, RD. Nhu Thanh, RD. Nhu Xuan, RD. Nong Cong, RD. Nga Son, RD. Thieu Hoa, RD. Tho Xuan, RD. Quang Xuang, T. Nghi Son, RD. Trieu Son, RD. Vinh Loc, RD. Yen Dinh8,2
RD. Bo Thuoc, RD. Thach Thanh13,7
RD. Lang Chanh, RD. Muong Lat, RD. Quan Hoa, RD. Quan Son, RD. Thuong Xuan, RD. Ngoc Lac, RD. Cam Thuy10,9
56. Thua Thien HueC. Hue, RD. Phong Dien, RD. Phu Loc, RD. Phu Vang, RD. Quang Dien10,9
RD. A Luoi, T. Huong Tra, T. Huong Thuy, RD. Nam Dong13,7
57. Tien GiangC. My Tho, T. Gu Cung, RD. Coi Bo, T. Cai Lay, RD. Chau Thanh, RD. Ton Phuoc, RD. Cho Gao, RD. Gu Cung Dong, RD. Gu Cung Toi13,7
58. Ho Chi Minh CityC. Thu Duc, Quan 1, Quan 3, Quan 4, Quan 5, Quan 6, Quan 7, Quan 8, Quan 10, Quan 11, Quan 12, D. Tan Phu, D. Binh Ton, D. Binh Thanh, D. Gu Vap, D. Phu NHoan, D. Ton Binh, RD. Binh Chonh, RD. NHa Bo, RD. Huc Mun13,7
RD. Can Gio10,9
RD. Cu Chi14,9
59. Tra VinhC. Tra Vinh, RD. Cang Long13,7
T. DuYen Hai, RD. Cau Ko, RD. Cau Ngang, RD. Chau Thanh, RD. DuYen Hai, RD. Tieu Can, RD. Tra Cy10,9
60. Tuyen QuangC. Tuyen Quang, RD. Chiem Hoa, RD. Ham Yen, RD. Na Hang, RD. Lom Binh, RD. Yen Son10,9
RD. Son Duong8,2
61. Vinh LongC. Vinh Long, RD. Long Ho, RD. Mang Thot, RD. Binh Ton13,7
RD. Tam Binh, RD. Tra en, RD. Vung Liem, T. Binh Minh10,9
62. Vinh PhucC. Vinh Yen, C. Phuc Yen, RD. Binh XuYen, RD. Lap Thach, RD. Tam Duong, RD. Vinh Tuong, RD. Yen Lac, RD. Song Lo10,9
RD. Tam Dao8,2
63. Yen BoiC. Yen Bai, T. Nghia Lo, RD. Luc Yen, RD. Mu Cang Chai, RD. Tram Tau, RD. Tran Yen, RD. Van Chan, RD. Van Yen, RD. Yen Binh10,9
5 WIND DATA USED IN DESIGN
5.1 Scope of application

The wind data in this chapter, compiled by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, includes wind pressure and wind velocity, provided in the form of wind pressure zoning maps and zoning by administrative locality. This wind data is used in the structural design of construction works and the design of construction measures for wind load-bearing structures.

5.2 Wind pressure data (W0)

5.2.1 The wind pressure zoning map for the territory of Vietnam (Figure 5.1) is established based on the wind velocity averaged over a period of 3 s, with a return period of 20 years (exceeded on average once in a 20-year period), at a height of 10 m above the ground, corresponding to terrain category B.

NOTE 1: The map in Figure 5.1 is provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

NOTE 2: Terrain category B is relatively open terrain with a few scattered obstacles not exceeding 10 m in height such as: sparsely populated suburban areas, towns, villages, thin forests or young forests, sparsely planted areas, etc.

5.2.2 On the map in Figure 5.1, wind pressure is divided into zones I, II, III, IV, and V, distinguished by isolines. Zone I corresponds to W0= 65 (daN/m2), zone II corresponds to W0 = 95 (daN/m2), zone III corresponds to W0= 125 (daN/m2), zone IV corresponds to W0= 155 (daN/m2), and zone V corresponds to W0= 185 (daN/m2).

NOTE: All zones are affected by typhoons; 1 daN/m2 = 10 N/m2.

5.2.3 Wind pressure zoning by administrative locality down to district level or equivalent is tabulated (Table 5.1, column 3).

NOTE: This table of wind pressure zoning by administrative locality is provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change based on the Wind Pressure Zoning Map at a scale of 1:1,000,000.

5.2.4 Use of wind pressure data W0

a) The wind pressure at the construction site is determined by one of two methods: using the Table of wind pressure zoning by administrative locality (Table 5.1, column 3) or, when greater accuracy is needed, using the Wind Pressure Zoning Map (Figure 5.1).

NOTE: Figure 5.1 is a reduced version; when reference is needed, use the large map with a scale of 1:1,000,000 stored at the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

b) In case the data provided by the competent state specialized agencies is the wind pressure W0 (3 s, 20 years), this wind pressure data shall be used.

c) In case the data provided by the competent state specialized agencies is the wind velocity V0, the corresponding wind pressure value _W_0 is determined by the following formula:

W0 = 0.0613 x V02(5.1)

where:

W0 (daN/m2) is the wind pressure corresponding to the wind velocity V0;

V0(m/s) is the wind velocity averaged over a period of 3 s, with a return period of 20 years (exceeded on average once in a 20-year period), at a height of 10 m above the reference level, corresponding to terrain category B.

5.3 Wind velocity data for 3 s, 50-year return period

5.3.1 Wind velocity zoning for 3 s, 50-year return period by administrative locality is tabulated (Table 5.1, column 4). This data is used for structural design calculations in Vietnam when using design standards with input data being the wind velocity for 3 s, 50-year return period, at a height of 10 m, terrain category B or equivalent.

NOTE: Wind velocity for 3 s, 50-year return period (T = 50 years) is the wind velocity averaged over a period of 3 s, with a return period of 50 years, at a height of 10 m above the reference level, corresponding to terrain category B.

5.3.2 When using design standards with input data being the wind velocity for 3 s, return period T other than 50 years, the wind velocity is determined by the following formula:

V3s,T = Ks,T x V3s,50 (5.2)

where:

V3s,T is the wind velocity for 3 s, return period T (years);

V3s,50 is the wind velocity for 3 s, 50-year return period;

Ks,T is the conversion factor from wind velocity for 3 s, 50-year return period to wind velocity for 3 s, return period T (years), taken from Table 5.2.

5.4 Wind velocity and wind pressure data for 10 minutes, 50-year return period

5.4.1 Wind velocity zoning for 10 minutes, 50-year return period by administrative locality is tabulated (Table 5.1, column 5). This data is used for structural design calculations in Vietnam when using design standards with input data being the wind velocity for 10 minutes, 50-year return period, at a height of 10 m, terrain category B or equivalent.

NOTE: Wind velocity for 10 minutes, 50-year return period (T = 50 years) is the wind velocity averaged over a period of 10 minutes, with a return period of 50 years, at a height of 10 m above the reference level, corresponding to terrain category B.

5.4.2 When using design standards with input data being the wind velocity for 10 minutes, return period T other than 50 years, the wind velocity is determined by the following formula:

V10m,T = Km,T x V10m,50 (5.3)

where:

V10m,T is the wind velocity for 10 minutes, return period T (years);

V10m,50 is the wind velocity for 10 minutes, 50-year return period;

Km,T is the conversion factor from wind velocity for 10 minutes, 50-year return period to wind velocity for 10 minutes, return period T (years), taken from Table 5.3.

5.4.3 When calculating structural design in Vietnam, using standards with input data being the wind pressure for 10 minutes, return period T equal to 50 years or different from 50 years, the following formula shall be used:

W10m,T = 0.0613 x V10m,T2 (5.4)

where:

W10m,T (daN/m2) is the wind pressure for 10 minutes, T years;

V10m,T (m/s) is the wind velocity for 10 minutes, T years, determined by formula (5.3).

5.5 Wind data from specific studies

When designing special structures that are sensitive to wind loads (such as: nuclear power plants, large-span cable-stayed bridges, long bridges (located across multiple administrative localities), etc.) or construction works in areas with complex terrain (such as: high mountains, mountain gorges, between two parallel mountain ranges, mountain passes, large river mouths, etc.), wind data from specific studies conducted and provided by competent state specialized agencies must be used.

WIND PRESSURE ZONING MAP FOR CONSTRUCTION (CORRESPONDING TO WIND VELOCITY FOR 3 SECONDS, 20-YEAR RETURN PERIOD)

NOTE: This is a reduced version of the map at a scale of 1:1,000,000, compiled and provided by the Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

Figure 5.1 – Wind pressure zoning map for the territory and sea areas of Vietnam

Table 5.1 – Wind pressure and wind velocity zoning by administrative locality

LocationZoneW0 (daN/m2) 3 s, 20 yearsV3s,50 (m/s) 3 s, 50 yearsV10m,50 (m/s) 10 minutes, 50 years
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
1. Ha Noi City    
All quan, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District My Duc, Phu Xuyen, Thuong Tin and Ung Hoa)II954431
Rural District My Duc (commune Dai Hung, commune Hung Tien, commune Huong Son, commune Van Kim)III1255036
Rural District My Duc (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Phu XuYen (commune Phu Tyc, commune Hong Minh, commune Tri Trung)II954431
Rural District Phu Xuyen (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Thuong Tin (commune Minh Cuong, commune Thong Nhat, commune Tu Hieu, commune Van Diem, commune Van Tu)III1255036
Rural District Thuong Tin (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Ung Hoa (town Van Donh, commune Quang Phu Cau, commune Lien Bat, commune Dong Tien, commune Son Cong, commune Hoa Son, commune Truong Thinh, commune Vion Noi, commune Vion An, commune Cao Thanh, commune Hoa Xo)II954431
Rural District Ung Hoa (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
2. Ho Chi Minh City    
All city, quan, Rural District (bao gom ca city Thu Duc, not including Rural District Cu Chi)II954431
Rural District Cu ChiI653626
3. Hai Phong City    
All quan, Rural District (not including Rural District Bach Long Vi and Thuy NguYen)IV1555539
Rural District Bach Long ViV1856143
Rural District Thuy NguYenIII1255036
4. Da Nang City    
All quan, Rural District (not including Rural District Hoa Vang and Hoang Sa)III1255036
Rural District Hoa Vang (commune Hoa Ninh, commune Hoa Phu, commune Hoa Khuong)II954431
Rural District Hoa Vang (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Hoang Sa (all dao belonging to islands Hoang Sa)V1856143
5. Can Tho City    
All quan, Rural DistrictII954431
6. An Giang    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Thoai Son, Tri Ton)I653626
Rural District Thoai Son (town Phu Hoa, commune Dinh My, commune Dinh Thanh, commune Phu Thoan, commune Toi Phu, commune Vinh Chonh, commune Vinh Phu, commune Vinh Trach)I653626
Rural District Thoai Son (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Tri Tun (town Ba Chyc, town Tri Tun, commune Chau Lang, commune Lac Quoi, commune Lo Tro, commune Nyi Tu, commune Ta Danh)I653626
Rural District Tri Ton (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
7. Ba Ria – Vung Tau    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Cun Dao)II954431
Rural District Con DaoIII1255036
8. Bac Lieu    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
9. Bac Giang    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Son Dong)II954431
Rural District Son Dong (town Tay Yen Tu, commune Duong Huu, commune Long Son, commune Thanh Luan)III1255036
Rural District Son Dong (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
10. Bac Kan    
All Rural District (not including city Bac Kan and Rural District Ngan Son)I653626
City Bac KanII954431
Rural District Ngan SonII954431
11. Bac Ninh    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Luong Tai)II954431
Rural District Luong Tai (commune Lai Ha, commune Minh Ton, commune Trung Chonh, commune Trung Konh, commune Trung Xo)III1255036
Rural District Luong Tai (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
12. Ben Tre    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
13. Binh Duong    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictI653626
14. Binh Dinh    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District An Loi, Hoai An, Toi Son, Van Canh and Vinh Thanh)III1255036
Rural District An Loi (commune An Toàn, commune An Vinh, commune An Nghia)II954431
Rural District An Loi (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Hoai An (commune Dak Mang, commune Bok Toi, commune An Nghia, commune An Son)II954431
Rural District Hoai An (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Tay Son (commune Binh Thuan, commune Toi An, commune Toi Vinh)III1255036
Rural District Tay Son (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Von Canh (town Von Canh, commune Canh Lien, commune Canh Thoan, commune Canh Hoa)II954431
Rural District Van Canh (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Vinh ThanhII954431
15. Binh Phuoc    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictI653626
16. Binh Thuan    
City Phan ThietII954431
Rural District Bac Binh (commune Binh An, commune Binh Ton, commune Hai Ninh, commune Phan Dien, commune Phan Lom, commune Phan Son, commune Phan Thanh, commune Phan Tien, commune Sung Binh, commune Sung Luy)I653626
Rural District Bac Binh (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Duc LinhI653626
Rural District Ham TonII954431
Rural District Ham Thoan Bac (town Phu Long, commune Hong Son, commune Ham Liem, commune Ham Duc, commune Ham Hiep, commune Ham Thang)II954431
Rural District Ham Thoan Bac (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
Rural District Ham Thoan Nam (commune Ham Can, commune Ham Thanh, commune Muong Man, commune My Thanh)I653626
Rural District Ham Thoan Nam (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Phu QuyIII1255036
Rural District Tonh LinhI653626
Rural District Tuy PhongII954431
Town La GiII954431
17. Ca Mau    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
18. Cao Bang    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictI653626
19. Dak Lak    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District M’Drak)I653626
Rural District M’Drak (town M’Drak, commune Cu M’ta, commune Ea Pil, commune Krung Á, commune Krung Jing)I653626
Rural District M’Drak (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
20. Dak Nong    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictI653626
21. Dien Bien    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
22. Dong Nai    
City Bien HoaII954431
City Long KhanhII954431
Rural District Cam MyII954431
Rural District Dinh QuanI653626
Rural District Long ThanhII954431
Rural District Nhon TrachII954431
Rural District Ton PhuI653626
Rural District Thong NhatII954431
Rural District Trang BomI653626
Rural District Vinh CuuI653626
Rural District Xuan LocII954431
23. Dong Thap    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Chau Thanhand Lai Vung)I653626
Rural District Chau ThanhII954431
Rural District Lai Vung (commune Phong Hoa, commune Long Thang, commune Ton Hoa, commune Dinh Hoa)II954431
Rural District Lai Vung (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
24. Gia Lai    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictI653626
25. Ha Giang    
City Ha GiangII954431
Rural District Bac MoII954431
Rural District Bac QuangII954431
Rural District Dong VanI653626
Rural District Hoang Su PhoII954431
Rural District Moo VacI653626
Rural District Quang BinhII954431
Rural District Quan BaI653626
Rural District Vi XuYenI653626
Rural District Xon ManI653626
Rural District Yen MinhI653626
26. Ha Nam    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Binh Luc)III1255036
Rural District Binh LucIV1555539
27. Ha Tinh    
City Ha TinhIV1555539
Town Hong LinhIV1555539
Town Ky AnhIV1555640
Rural District Can LocIV1555539
Rural District Cam XuYen (town Thien Cam, commune Cam Duong, commune Yen Hoa, commune Cam Linh, commune Cam Loc, commune Cam Nhuong, commune Cam Trung)IV1555640
Rural District Cam Xuyen (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Duc ThoII954431
Rural District Huong Khe (commune Huong Lam, commune Huong Lien, commune Huong Tra, commune Huong Vinh, commune Huong Xuan, commune Phu Gia, commune Phu Phong)I653626
Rural District Huong Khe (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Huong Son (town Tay Son, commune Quang Diem, commune Son Ham, commune Son Hong, commune Son Kim 1, commune Son Kim 2, commune Son Linh, commune Son Tay)I653626
Rural District Huong Son (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Ky AnhIV1555640
Rural District Nghi XuanIV1555640
Rural District Thach HaIV1555640
Rural District Vu QuangII954431
Rural District Loc HaIV1555640
28. Hai Duong    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Tu Ky)III1255036
Rural District Tu KyIV1555640
29. Hau Giang    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
30. Hoa Binh    
All city, Rural District (not including cac Rural District Da Bac, Lac Thuy, Mai Chau and Yen Thuy)II954431
Rural District Da Bac (town Da Bac, commune Ton Minh, commune Vay Nua, commune Cao Son, commune Ty Ly, commune Hien Luong, commune Toàn Son)II954431
Rural District Da Bac (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
Rural District Lac Thuy (town Ba Hang Doi, commune Hung Thi, commune Phu Thanh, commune Thong Nhat, commune Phu Loi,)II954431
Rural District Lac Thuy (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Mai Chau (town Mai Chau, commune Mai Ha, commune Mai Hich, commune Nà Phun, commune Son Thuy, commune Ton Thanh, commune Dong Tan, commune Thanh Son, commune Van Mai)I653626
Rural District Mai Chau (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Yen Thuy (commune Lac Luong, commune Lac Thinh, commune Lac Si, commune Da Phuc)II954431
Rural District Yen Thuy (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
31. Hung Yen    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Van Giang and Van Lam)III1255036
Rural District Van GiangII954431
Rural District Van LamII954431
32. Khanh Hoa    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Khanh Son, Khanh Vinh and Truong Sa)II954431
Rural District Khanh SonI653626
Rural District Khanh VinhI653626
Rural District Truong Sa (all dao belonging to islands Truong Sa)IV1555640
33. Kien Giang    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Kien Hai and City Phu Quoc)II954431
City Phu Quoc (bao gom dao Phu Quoc and cac dao khac thuoc city Phu Quoc), Rural District Kien HaiIII1255036
34. Kon Tum    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictI653626
35. Lai Chau    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
36. Lang Son    
All city, Rural District (not including cac Rural District Donh Lap and Huu Lung)I653626
Rural District Donh Lap (commune Bac Long, commune Chau Son, commune Dong Thang, commune Lom Ca)II954431
Rural District Donh Lap (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
Rural District Huu Lung (commune Dong Tien, commune Hoa Thang, commune Minh Hoa, commune Minh Son, commune Thanh Son, commune Von Nham)II954431
Rural District Huu Lung (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
37. Lao Cai    
All City, Rural District (not including Town Sa Pa and coc Rural District Bot Xot and Van Ban)I653626
Town Sa PaII954431
Rural District Bot Xot (Town Bot Xot, commune Quang Kim, commune Tung Sành)I653626
Rural District Bat Xat (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Van Ban (commune Dan Thang, commune Duong Quy, commune Hoa Mac, commune Khanh Yen Ha, commune Khanh Yen Trung, commune Minh Luong, commune Nam Chay, commune Nam Ma, commune Nam Xoy, commune Nam Xo, commune Tham Duong)II954431
Rural District Van Ban (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
38. Lam Dong    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictI653626
39. Long An    
City Ton AnII954431
Rural District Ben LucII954431
Rural District Can GiuocII954431
Rural District Can DuocII954431
Rural District Chau ThanhII954431
Rural District Duc HoaI653626
Rural District Duc HueI653626
Rural District Moc HoaI653626
Rural District Tan HungI653626
Rural District Ton ThanhI653626
Rural District Ton TruII954431
Rural District Thanh HoaI653626
Rural District Thu ThoaII954431
Rural District Vinh HungI653626
Town Kien TuongI653626
40. Nam Dinh    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictIV1555640
41. Nghe An    
City VinhIII1255036
Town Cua LuIV1555640
Town Hoang MaiIV1555640
Town Thoi HoaIII1255036
Rural District Con CuungI653626
Rural District Dien ChauIII1255036
Rural District Do LuongII954431
Rural District Hung NguyenIII1255036
Rural District Ky SonI653626
Rural District Nam DanII954431
Rural District Nghi Loc (commune Nghi Thiet, commune Khanh Hop, commune Nghi Quang, commune Nghi Tien)IV1555640
Rural District Nghi Loc (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Nghia Dan (commune Nghia An, commune Nghia Duc, commune Nghia Hieu, commune Nghia Hong, commune Nghia Hung, commune Nghia Khanh, commune Nghia Thanh, commune Nghia Mai, commune Nghia Minh, commune Nghia Thinh, commune Nghia Yen)II954431
Rural District Nghia Dan (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Que PhongI653626
Rural District Quy Chau (commune Chau Binh, commune Chau Hanh, commune Chau Hoi, commune Chau Nga)II954431
Rural District Quy Chau (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
Rural District Quy HopII954431
Rural District Quynh Luu (commune An Hoa, commune Quynh Nghia, commune Quynh Bang, commune Quynh Doi, commune Quynh Long, commune Quynh Luong, commune Quynh Minh, commune Quynh Thanh, commune Quynh Thoan, commune Quynh Yen, commune Tien Thuy)IV1555640
Rural District Quynh Luu (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Ton KyII954431
Rural District Thanh ChuongII954431
Rural District Tuong DuongI653626
Rural District Yen Thanh(commune Do Thanh, commune Duc Thanh, commune Hau Thanh, commune Hoa Thanh, commune Hong Thanh, commune Hop Thanh, commune Lang Thanh, commune Mo Thanh, commune Nhon Thanh, commune Phu Thanh, commune Phuc Thanh, commune Son Thanh, commune Ton Thanh, commune Tho Thanh, commune Tien Thanh, commune Van Thanh, commune Vion Thanh, commune Vinh Thanh)III1255036
Rural District Yen Thanh (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
42. Ninh Binh    
City Ninh BinhIV1555640
City Tam DiepIV1555640
Rural District Gia VienIII1255036
Rural District Hoa LuIII1255036
Rural District Kim SonIV1555640
Rural District Nho QuanIII1255036
Rural District Yen KhanhIV1555640
Rural District Yen MuIV1555640
43. Ninh Thuan    
City Phan Rang – Thop ChamII954431
Rural District Bac AiI653626
Rural District Ninh HaiII954431
Rural District Ninh PhuocII954431
Rural District Ninh SonI653626
Rural District Thoan BacII954431
Rural District Thoan NamII954431
44. Phu Tho    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
45. Phu Yen    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Dong Xuan, Song Hinh, Son Hoa and Tay Hoa)III1255036
Rural District Dong Xuan (commune Phu Mo, commune Xuan Phuoc, commune Xuan Quang 1, commune Xuan Quang 2, commune Xuan Quang 3)II954431
Rural District Dong Xuan (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Sung HinhII954431
Rural District Son HoaII954431
Rural District Toi Hoa (commune Hoa My Dong, commune Hoa My Toi, commune Hoa Phong, commune Hoa Phu, commune Son Thanh Dong, commune Son Thanh Tay)II954431
Rural District Toi Hoa (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
46. Quang Binh    
City Dong HoiIII1255036
Town Ba DonIII1255036
Rural District Bo Trach (commune Bac Trach, commune Dai Trach, commune Dong Trach, commune Duc Trach, commune Hai Phu, commune Ly Trach, commune Nhon Trach, commune Thanh Trach, commune Trung Trach)III1255036
Rural District Bo Trach (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Le Thuy (commune Ngu Thuy Bac, commune Ngu Thuy, commune Sen Thuy)III1255036
Rural District Le Thuy (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Minh HoaI653626
Rural District Quang NinhIII1255036
Rural District Quang TrachIII1255036
Rural District Tuyen HoaII954431
47. Quang Nam    
City Tam KyIII1255036
City Hoi AnIII1255036
Town Dien BanIII1255036
Rural District Bac Tra My (commune Tra Bui, commune Tra Doc, commune Tra Son, commune Tra Ton)I653626
Rural District Bac Tra My (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Duy XuYen (commune Duy Son, commune Duy Phu, commune Duy Hoa, commune Duy Trinh, commune Duy Chau, commune Duy Thu, commune Duy Ton)II954431
Rural District Duy Xuyen (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Dai LocII954431
Rural District Dong GiangI653626
Rural District Hiep DucII954431
Rural District Nam GiangI653626
Rural District Nam Tra MyI653626
Rural District Nong SonII954431
Rural District Nyi ThanhIII1255036
Rural District Phuoc SonI653626
Rural District Que Son (town Huong An, commune Que My, commune Que Phu, commune Que Xuan 1, commune Que Xuan 2)III1255036
Rural District Que Son (all remaining administrative locations)II954431
Rural District Toi GiangI653626
Rural District Thang BinhIII1255036
Rural District Tien PhuocII954431
Rural District Phu Ninh (Town Phu Thinh, commune Tam Lonh, commune Tam Loc, commune Tam Don, commune Tam Vinh, commune Tam Phuoc, commune Tam Thoi)II954431
Rural District Phu Ninh (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
48. Quang Ngai    
All city, Rural District (not including cac Rural District Ba To, Minh Long, Son Ha, Son Tay and Tra Bong)III1255036
Rural District Ba ToII954431
Rural District Minh LongII954431
Rural District Son HaII954431
Rural District Son Tay (commune Son Lap, commune Son Tan, commune Son Mau, commune Son Tinh)II954431
Rural District Son Tay (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
Rural District Tra BongII954431
49. Quang Ninh    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Town Quang Yen, coc Rural District Binh Lieu, Cu Tu and Von Don)III1255036
Rural District Binh LieuII954431
Rural District Cu TuIV1555640
Town Quang YenIV1555640
Rural District Van DonIV1555640
50. Quang Tri    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Gio Linh, Huong Hoa, Trieu Phong, Vinh Linh and Con Co)II954431
Rural District Gio LinhIII1255036
Rural District Huong HoaI653626
Rural District Trieu PhongIII1255036
Rural District Vinh LinhIII1255036
Rural District Con CoIII1255036
51. Soc Trang    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
52. Son La    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
53. Toi Ninh    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictI653626
54. Thai Binh    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictIV1555640
55. Thai Nguyen    
All City, Town, Rural District (not including Rural District Dong Hy, Phu Luong and Vu Nhai)II954431
Rural District Dong Hy (town Trai Cau, commune Hop Tien, commune Nam Hoa, commune Ton Loi)II954431
Rural District Dong Hy (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
Rural District Phu LuongI653626
Rural District Vu NhaiI653626
56. Thanh Hoa    
City Thanh HoaIV1555640
City Sam SonIV1555640
Town Bim SonIV1555640
Town Nghi SonIV1555640
Rural District Ba ThuocII954431
Rural District Cam ThuyII954431
Rural District Dong SonIII1255036
Rural District Ha Trung (commune Ha Hai, commune Linh Toai, commune Ha Vinh)IV1555640
Rural District Ha Trung (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Hau LocIV1555640
Rural District Hoang HoaIV1555640
Rural District Lang ChanhII954431
Rural District Muong LatI653626
Rural District Nga SonIV1555640
Rural District Ngoc LacII954431
Rural District Nhu ThanhII954431
Rural District Nhu XuanII954431
Rural District Nong CongIII1255036
Rural District Quang Xuang (town Tan Phong, commune Quang Hoa, commune Quang Hop, commune Quang Long, commune Quang Ngoc, commune Quang Phuc, commune Quang Trach, commune Quang Van, commune Quang Yen)III1255036
Rural District Quang Xuang (all remaining administrative locations)IV1555640
Rural District Quan HoaI653626
Rural District Quan SonI653626
Rural District Thach ThanhIII1255036
Rural District Tho Xuan (town Lam Son, Town Sao Vang, commune Quang Phu, commune Tho Dien, commune Tho Hai, commune Tho Lom, commune Tho Lap, commune Thoan Minh, commune Tho Xuang, commune Xuan Boi, commune Xuan Hoa, commune Xuan Hung, commune Xuan Phu, commune Xuan Thien, commune Xuan Ton)II954431
Rural District Tho Xuan (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Thuong XuanII954431
Rural District Thieu HoaIII1255036
Rural District Trieu SonIII1255036
Rural District Vinh LocIII1255036
Rural District Yen DinhIII1255036
57. Thua Thien Hue    
City HueII954431
Town Huong ThuyII954431
Town Huong TraII954431
Rural District A LuoiI653626
Rural District Nam Dong (commune Thuong Lo, commune Huong Phu, commune Huong Loc)II954431
Rural District Nam Dong (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
Rural District Phu Loc (town Phu Loc, commune Loc Dien, commune Loc Tro, commune Xuan Loc, commune Loc Hoa, commune Loc Bon, commune Loc An, commune Loc Son, commune Vinh Hung)II954431
Rural District Phu Loc (all remaining administrative locations)III1255036
Rural District Phu VangIII1255036
Rural District Phong DienIII1255036
Rural District Quang DienIII1255036
58. Tien Giang    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
59. Tra Vinh    
All City, Town, quan, Rural DistrictII954431
60. Tuyen Quang    
City Tuyen QuangII954431
Rural District Chiem HoaII954431
Rural District Ham YenII954431
Rural District Na HangII954431
Rural District Son DuongI653626
Rural District Yen SonII954431
Rural District Lom BinhII954431
61. Vinh Long    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
62. Vinh Phuc    
All City, Town, Rural DistrictII954431
63. Yen Boi    
City Yen BoiII954431
Town Nghia LoII954431
Rural District Luc YenI653626
Rural District Mu Cang ChaiII954431
Rural District Tram TauII954431
Rural District Tran YenII954431
Rural District Van Chan (town Nong truong Lien Son, commune Cot Thinh, commune Gia Hoi, commune Nam Byng, commune Nam Lanh, commune Nghia Son, commune Son Luong, commune Son Thinh, commune Ty Le)II954431
Rural District Van Chan (all remaining administrative locations)I653626
Rural District Van YenI653626
Rural District Yen BinhII954431

Table 5.2 – Coefficient Ks,T, used to convert from wind velocity for 3 s, 50 years to wind velocity for 3 s, T (years)

T, years51020304050100
Ks,T0,770,840,910,950,981,001,07

Table 5.3 – Coefficient Km,T, used to convert from wind velocity for 10 minutes, 50 years to wind velocity for 10 minutes, T (years)

T, years151020304050100
Km,T0,750,850,900,950,970,991,001,04
6 EARTHQUAKE DATA USED IN DESIGN
6.1 Earthquake data based on reference peak ground acceleration

6.1.1 This data applies to the design of earthquake-resistant structures in Vietnam using the reference peak ground acceleration, agR. The data is presented in the form of a Reference Peak Ground Acceleration Zoning Map and a Table of reference peak ground acceleration zoning by administrative locality.

NOTE 1: Reference peak ground acceleration is the peak ground acceleration on soil type A, with a reference return period of 500 years.

NOTE 2: Soil type A is rock, hard rock, with an average shear wave velocity Vs,30 > 800 m/s.

6.1.2 The Reference Peak Ground Acceleration Zoning Map (territory of Vietnam) at a scale of 1:1,000,000 is provided by the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. The map is established with a return period of 500 years for soil type A. The Reference Peak Ground Acceleration Zoning Map is shown in Figure 6.1 (this is a reduced version of the map at a scale of 1:1,000,000). The map is divided into zones, by color bands corresponding to the reference peak ground acceleration values: 0.00g – 0.02g, 0.02g – 0.04g, 0.04g – 0.06g… (g = 9.81 m/s2 is the gravitational acceleration).

6.1.3 The Table of reference peak ground acceleration zoning by administrative locality down to district level or equivalent is compiled based on the Reference Peak Ground Acceleration Zoning Map at a scale of 1:1,000,000. Each district according to administrative locality has a reference peak ground acceleration value, which is considered the reference value of the entire locality. The Table of reference peak ground acceleration zoning by administrative locality is given in Table 6.1.

6.1.4 When designing earthquake-resistant structures, the reference peak ground acceleration at the construction site is determined by one of two methods: According to the Table of reference peak ground acceleration zoning by administrative locality or, when greater accuracy is needed, according to the Reference Peak Ground Acceleration Zoning Map of the territory of Vietnam at a scale of 1:1,000,000 (stored at the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology).

6.1.5 In case the earthquake data (based on the reference peak ground acceleration agR) is provided by the competent state specialized agency, it is allowed to use this data.

6.1.6 When the design standard applied to earthquake-resistant structures uses a peak ground acceleration with requirements different from those of the reference peak ground acceleration (for example: with a return period different from 500 years or for a soil type other than A), the above values are converted by multiplying the reference peak ground acceleration of this regulation with the corresponding coefficients. These coefficients are taken according to the provisions of the applied design standard or according to specific studies.

6.2 Earthquake data based on response spectra SS and S1

6.2.1 This earthquake data applies to the design of earthquake-resistant structures in Vietnam using the short-period acceleration response spectrum (abbreviated as SS response spectrum) and the long-period acceleration response spectrum (abbreviated as S1 response spectrum) of the maximum earthquake corresponding to a return period of 2,500 years (abbreviated as the 2,500-year earthquake) for soil type B. This data is provided in the form of earthquake zoning maps and by administrative locality.

NOTE 1: Short period corresponds to a structural natural period of 0.2 s, long period corresponds to a natural period of 1 s, the structural damping ratio is 5%.

NOTE 2: Soil type B is rock with an average shear wave velocity vs,30 from 762 m/s to 1,524 m/s.

6.2.2 The earthquake zoning maps based on response spectra for the territory of Vietnam at a scale of 1:1,000,000 are provided by the Institute of Geophysics. These maps are established with the 2,500-year earthquake for soil type B. There are two maps including: The Earthquake Zoning Map based on SS Response Spectrum (for the territory of Vietnam) is shown in Figure 6.2 and the Earthquake Zoning Map based on S1 Response Spectrum is shown in Figure 6.3 (these are reduced versions of the two maps at a scale of 1:1,000,000). In each map, it is divided into zones, by color bands corresponding to the response spectrum values: 0.00_g_ – 0.02_g_, 0.02_g_ – 0.04_g_, 0.04_g_ – 0.06_g_, …

6.2.3 The Tables of earthquake zoning based on SS and S1 response spectrum values by administrative locality down to district level or equivalent are compiled based on the two Earthquake Zoning Maps based on SS and S1 Response Spectra for the territory of Vietnam at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The Table of earthquake zoning based on SS and S1 acceleration response spectra by administrative locality is given in Table 6.2. Each district according to administrative locality has an SS acceleration response spectrum value and an S1 acceleration response spectrum value. These SS and S1 response spectrum values are considered the corresponding values of the entire administrative locality.

6.2.4 When designing earthquake-resistant structures, the SS and S1 response spectrum values at the construction site can be determined by one of two methods: According to the Table of zoning of SS and S1 response spectrum values by administrative locality or, when greater accuracy is needed, according to the Earthquake Zoning Maps based on SS and S1 Response Spectra at a scale of 1:1,000,000 (stored at the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology).

6.3 Earthquake data based on surface shaking intensity, I

When designing earthquake-resistant structures based on the surface shaking intensity (earthquake grade) according to the MSK – 64 scale, it is necessary to convert the reference peak ground acceleration agR value in Table 6.1 to the earthquake grade according to the MSK – 64 scale. The conversion is carried out according to Table 6.4.

6.4 Earthquake data from specific studies

6.4.1 The earthquake data provided in this regulation is data on natural earthquakes (tectonic earthquakes). For areas that may be related to induced earthquakes, specific studies and surveys should be conducted by competent state specialized agencies to obtain earthquake data for use in design; the reference peak ground acceleration agR in these areas should not be taken less than 0.06×g.

NOTE: Induced earthquakes in this regulation are mainly earthquakes related to water storage in reservoirs, causing changes in the stress and strain fields in that area, triggering earthquakes.

6.4.2 When designing special and specific structures such as concrete dams with a height of over 100 m, nuclear power plants, etc., earthquake data from specific studies conducted and provided by competent state specialized agencies must be used.

NOTE: This is a reduced version of the map at a scale of 1:1,000,000, compiled and provided by the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.

Figure 6.1 – Zoning map of reference peak ground acceleration, agR, for the territory of Vietnam, 500-year return period for soil type A

NOTE: This is a reduced version of the Earthquake Zoning Map based on Short-Period Acceleration Response Spectrum SS , for the territory of Vietnam at a scale of 1:1,000,000, 2,500-year return period for soil type B, compiled and provided by the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.

Figure 6.2 – Earthquake Zoning Map based on SS Response Spectrum

NOTE: This is a reduced version of the Earthquake Zoning Map based on Long-Period Acceleration Response Spectrum S1, for the territory of Vietnam at a scale of 1:1,000,000, 2,500-year return period for soil type B, compiled and provided by the Institute of Geophysics – Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.

Figure 6.3 – Earthquake Zoning Map based on S1 Response Spectrum

Table 6.1 – Table of earthquake zoning based on reference peak ground acceleration by administrative locality (500-year return period for soil type A), g = 9.81 m/s2 (gravitational acceleration)

LocationReference peak ground acceleration, agRLocationReference peak ground acceleration, agR
(1)(2)(3)(4)
1. Ha Noi City
District Ba Dinh0,10×gRural District Dan Phuong0,12×g
District Cau Giay0,10×gRural District Dong Anh0,08×g
District Dong Da0,10×gRural District Gia Lom0,08×g
District Ha Dong0,12×gRural District Hoai Duc0,12×g
District Hai Ba Trung0,10×gRural District Mo Linh0,08×g
District Hoàn Kiem0,10×gRural District My Duc0,10×g
District Hoàng Mai0,10×gRural District Phuc Tho0,12×g
District Long Bien0,08×gRural District Phu XuYen0,12×g
District Tay Ho0,10×gRural District Quoc Oai0,12×g
District Thanh Xuon0,12×gRural District Soc Son0,10×g
District Bac Tu Liem0,12×gRural District Thach That0,12×g
District Nam Tu Liem0,12×gRural District Thanh Oai0,12×g
Town Son Tay0,12×gRural District Thanh Tro0,12×g
Rural District Ba Vo0,12×gRural District Thuong Tin0,12×g
Rural District Chuong My0,12×gRural District Ung Hoa0,12×g
2. Ho Chi Minh City
City Thu Duc0,06×gDistrict 110,06×g
District 10,06×gDistrict 120,06×g
District 30,06×gDistrict Binh Thanh0,06×g
District 40,06×gDistrict Binh Ton0,06×g
District 50,06×gDistrict Gu Vap0,06×g
District 60,06×gDistrict Phu NHoan0,06×g
District 70,06×gDistrict Ton Binh0,06×g
District 80,06×gDistrict Ton Phu0,06×g
District 100,06×gRural District Binh Chong0,06×g
Rural District Can Gio0,06×gRural District Huc Mun0,06×g
Rural District Cu Chi0,06×gRural District NHa Bo0,06×g
3. Hai Phong City
District Hong Bang0,14×gRural District An Loo0,14×g
District Duong Kinh0,12×gRural District Bach Long Vi0,04×g
District Do Son0,10×gRural District Cot Hai0,04×g
District Hai An0,14×gRural District Kien Thuy0,12×g
District Kien An0,14×gRural District Thuy NguYen0,12×g
District Lo Chon0,14×gRural District Tien Long0,10×g
District Ngu Quyen0,14×gRural District Vinh Bao0,08×g
Rural District An Duong0,14×g  
4. Da Nang City
District Cam Le0,04×gDistrict Son Tra0,08×g
District Hai Chau0,08×gDistrict Thanh Kho0,08×g
District Lien Chieu0,06×gRural District Hoa Vang0,04×g
District Ngu Hanh Son0,06×gRural District Hoang Sa (District dao Hoang Sa)0,04×g
5. Can Tho City
District Binh Thuy0,04×gRural District Co Do0,02×g
District Cai Rang0,04×gRural District Phong Dien0,02×g
District Ninh Kieu0,04×gRural District Thai Lai0,02×g
District e Mun0,04×gRural District Vinh Thanh0,02×g
District Thot Not0,04×g  
6. An Giang
City Long XuYen0,04×gRural District An Phu0,04×g
City Chau Doc0,04×gRural District Chau Phu0,04×g
Town Ton Chau0,04×gRural District Chau Thanh0,04×g
Rural District Cho Moi0,04×gRural District Tri Tun0,02×g
Rural District Phu Ton0,04×gRural District Tinh Bien0,04×g
Rural District Thoai Son0,02×g  
7. Ba Ria – Vung Tàu
City Vung Tàu0,04×gRural District Dat Do0,04×g
City Ba Ria0,04×gRural District Long Dien0,04×g
Rural District Chau Duc0,02×gRural District Ton THanh0,04×g
Rural District Con Dao0,04×gRural District Xuyen Moc0,02×g
8. Bac Lieu
City Bac Lieu0,02×gRural District Hong Don0,02×g
Rural District Dong Hai0,02×gRural District Phuoc Long0,02×g
Rural District Gia Rai0,02×gRural District Vinh Loi0,02×g
Rural District Hoa Binh0,02×g  
9. Bac Giang
City Bac Giang0,10×gRural District Son Dong0,04×g
Rural District Hiep Hoa0,08×gRural District Ton Yen0,06×g
Rural District Lang Giang0,08×gRural District Viet Yen0,12×g
Rural District Luc Nam0,10×gRural District Yen Dung0,10×g
Rural District Luc Ngan0,06×gRural District Yen The0,06×g
10. Bac Kan
City Bac Kan0,08×gRural District Cho Moi0,06×g
Rural District Ba Be0,06×gRural District Na Ro0,04×g
Rural District Bach Thung0,08×gRural District Ngan Son0,04×g
Rural District Cho Don0,04×gRural District Poc Nam0,06×g
11. Bac Ninh
City Bac Ninh0,12×gCity Tu Son0,08×g
Rural District Gia Binh0,14×gRural District Thoan THanh0,10×g
Rural District Luong Tai0,12×gRural District Tien Du0,10×g
Rural District Que Vu0,12×gRural District Yen Phong0,10×g
12. Ben Tre
City Ben Tre0,02×gRural District Giong Trom0,02×g
Rural District Ba Tri0,02×gRural District Mo Cày Bac0,02×g
Rural District Binh Dai0,02×gRural District Mo Cày Nam0,02×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,02×gRural District Thanh Phu0,02×g
Rural District Cho Loch0,02×g  
13. Binh Duong
City Thu Dau Mot0,04×gRural District Bau Bang0,04×g
Town Ben Cot0,04×gRural District Bac Ton UYen0,02×g
Town Di An0,04×gRural District Dau Tieng0,04×g
Town Ton UYen0,02×gRural District Phu Giao0,04×g
Town Thoan An0,06×g  
14. Binh Dinh
City Quy Nhon0,10×gRural District Phu My0,10×g
Town An Nhon0,10×gRural District Tay Son0,10×g
Rural District An Loo0,10×gRural District Tuy Phuoc0,10×g
Rural District Hoai An0,10×gRural District Von Canh0,10×g
Rural District Hoai Nhon0,10×gRural District Vinh Thanh0,10×g
Rural District Phu Cot0,10×g  
15. Binh Phuoc
City Dong Xoai0,02×gRural District Bu Dang0,02×g
Town Binh Long0,02×gRural District Bu Dop0,02×g
Town Phuoc Long0,02×gRural District Bu Gia Map0,02×g
Rural District Chon Thanh0,02×gRural District Hon District0,02×g
Rural District Dong Phu0,04×gRural District Loc Ninh0,02×g
16. Binh Thoan
City Phan Thiet0,04×gRural District Ham Thoan Nam0,02×g
Town La Gi0,04×gRural District Ham Thoan Bac0,02×g
Rural District Bac Binh0,02×gRural District Phu Quy0,06×g
Rural District Duc Linh0,02×gRural District Tonh Linh0,02×g
Rural District Ham Ton0,02×gRural District Tuy Phong0,04×g
17. Cà Mau
City Cà Mau0,02×gRural District Phu Ton0,02×g
Rural District Cai Nuoc0,02×gRural District U Minh0,02×g
Rural District Dam Doi0,02×gRural District Tran Van Thai0,02×g
Rural District Nam Can0,02×gRural District Thai Binh0,02×g
Rural District Ngoc Hien0,04×g  
18. Cao Bang
City Cao Bang0,04×gRural District Phuc Hoa0,04×g
Rural District Bao Lac0,04×gRural District Quang UYen0,04×g
Rural District Bao Lom0,06×gRural District Thach An0,04×g
Rural District Ha Lang0,02×gRural District Thung Nung0,04×g
Rural District Ha Quang0,06×gRural District Tra Linh0,04×g
Rural District Hoa An0,04×gRural District Trung Khonh0,06×g
Rural District NguYen Binh0,04×g  
19. Dak Lak
City Buun Ma Thuot0,04×gRural District Cu Kuin0,04×g
Town Buun Ho0,04×gRural District Cu M’gar0,04×g
Rural District Buon Don0,02×gRural District Ea H’leo0,04×g
Rural District Ea Kar0,04×gRural District Krong Nang0,04×g
Rural District Ea Syp0,04×gRural District Krung Pac0,04×g
Rural District Krung A Na0,02×gRural District Lak0,04×g
Rural District Krung Bung0,04×gRural District M’Drak0,06×g
Rural District Krung Byk0,04×g  
20. Dak Nong
City Gia Nghia0,04×gRural District Dak Song0,02×g
Rural District Cu Jut0,02×gRural District Dak Glong0,04×g
Rural District Dak Mil0,02×gRural District Krung Nu0,02×g
Rural District Dak R’Lap0,02×gRural District Tuy Duc0,02×g
21. Dien Bien
City Dien Bien Phu0,18×gRural District Muong Cha0,20×g
Town Muong Lay0,20×gRural District Muong Nhe0,16×g
Rural District Dien Bien0,14×gRural District Nam Po0,16×g
Rural District Dien Bien Dong0,14×gRural District Tuan Giao0,20×g
Rural District Muong Ang0,14×gRural District Tua CHoa0,20×g
22. Dong Nai
City Bien Hoa0,04×gRural District Ton Phu0,02×g
Town Long Khonh0,02×gRural District Thong Nhat0,02×g
Rural District Cam My0,02×gRural District Trang Bom0,02×g
Rural District Dinh District0,02×gRural District Vinh Cuu0,02×g
Rural District Long THanh0,04×gRural District Xuon Loc0,02×g
Rural District Nhon Trach0,04×g  
23. Dong Thap
City Cao Lonh0,02×gTown Hong Ngu0,02×g
City Sa Dec0,04×gRural District Cao Lonh0,02×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,02×gRural District Tam Nung0,02×g
Rural District Hong Ngu0,04×gRural District Ton Hong0,02×g
Rural District Lai Vung0,04×gRural District Thanh Binh0,02×g
Rural District Lap Vu0,04×gRural District Thap Muoi0,02×g
24. Gia Lai
City Pleiku0,04×gRural District Dak Doa0,04×g
Town An Kho0,08×gRural District Krung Pa0,08×g
Town Ayun Pa0,06×gRural District Kung Chro0,08×g
Rural District Chu Se0,04×gRural District KBang0,08×g
Rural District Chu Puh0,06×gRural District Ia Grai0,04×g
Rural District Chu Prong0,04×gRural District Ia Pa0,06×g
Rural District Chu Pah0,06×gRural District Mang Yang0,06×g
Rural District Dak Po0,08×gRural District Phu Thien0,06×g
Rural District Duc Co0,06×g  
25. Ha Giang
City Ha Giang0,04×gRural District Quang Binh0,06×g
Rural District Bac Mo0,04×gRural District District Ba0,04×g
Rural District Bac Quang0,04×gRural District Vi XuYen0,04×g
Rural District Dong Van0,04×gRural District Xon Man0,04×g
Rural District Hoàng Su Pho0,04×gRural District Yen Minh0,06×g
Rural District Moo Vac0,04×g  
26. Ha Nam
City Phu Ly0,14×gRural District Kim Bang0,14×g
Town Duy Tien0,14×gRural District Ly Nhon0,14×g
Rural District Binh Luc0,14×gRural District Thanh Liem0,14×g
27. Ha Tinh
City Ha Tinh0,12×gRural District Huong Son0,10×g
Town Hong Linh0,12×gRural District Huong Khe0,08×g
Town Ky Anh0,10×gRural District Loc Ha0,12×g
Rural District Can Loc0,12×gRural District Nghi Xuon0,12×g
Rural District Cam XuYen0,12×gRural District Thach Ha0,12×g
Rural District Duc Tho0,12×gRural District Vu Quang0,10×g
28. Hai Duong
City Hai Duong0,14×gRural District Kim THanh0,14×g
City Cho Linh0,12×gRural District Ninh Giang0,06×g
Town Kinh Mun0,12×gRural District Nam Soch0,14×g
Rural District Binh Giang0,06×gRural District Thanh Ha0,14×g
Rural District Cam Giàng0,10×gRural District Thanh Mien0,06×g
Rural District Gia Loc0,10×gRural District Tu Ky0,12×g
29. Hau Giang
City Vi Thanh0,02×gRural District Long My0,02×g
Town Ngo Bay0,02×gRural District Phung Hiep0,02×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,04×gRural District Vi Thuy0,02×g
Rural District Chau Thanh A0,02×g  
30. Hoa Binh
City Hoa Binh0,08×gRural District Lac Thuy0,08×g
Rural District Cao Phong0,08×gRural District Luong Son0,08×g
Rural District Da Bac0,08×gRural District Mai Chau0,16×g
Rural District Kim Bui0,06×gRural District Ton Lac0,12×g
Rural District Lac Son0,16×gRural District Yen Thuy0,14×g
31. Hung Yen
City Hung Yen0,14×gRural District Phu Cu0,08×g
Rural District Ân Thi0,08×gRural District Tien Lu0,12×g
Rural District Kim Dong0,12×gRural District Van Giang0,08×g
Rural District Khooi Chau0,12×gRural District Van Lam0,08×g
Rural District My Hao0,08×gRural District Yen My0,08×g
32. Khonh Hoa
City Nha Trang0,04×gRural District Khanh Son0,04×g
City Cam Ranh0,04×gRural District Khonh Vinh0,04×g
Town Ninh Hoa0,04×gRural District Truong Sa (District dao Truong Sa)0,02×g
Rural District Cam Lom0,04×gRural District Van Ninh0,04×g
Rural District Dien Khanh0,04×g  
33. Kien Giang
City Rach Gia0,02×gRural District Giang THanh0,02×g
City Phu Quoc0,02×gRural District Gu Quao0,02×g
Town Ha Tien0,02×gRural District Hun Dat0,02×g
Rural District An Bien0,02×gRural District Kien Hai0,02×g
Rural District An Minh0,02×gRural District Kien Luong0,02×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,02×gRural District Ton Hiep0,02×g
Rural District Giong Rieng0,02×gRural District Vinh Thoan0,02×g
34. Kon Tum
City Kon Tum0,06×gRural District Kon Plung0,08×g
Rural District Dak Ha0,06×gRural District Ngoc Hoi0,08×g
Rural District Dak To0,08×gRural District Sa Thay0,08×g
Rural District Dak Glei0,08×gRural District Tu Mo Rong0,08×g
Rural District Kon Ray0,08×gRural District Ia H’Drai0,10×g
35. Lai Chau
City Lai Chau0,12×gRural District Son Ho0,18×g
Rural District Muong Te0,12×gRural District Ton UYen0,10×g
Rural District Nam Nhun0,16×gRural District Tam Duong0,10×g
Rural District Phong Tho0,14×gRural District Than UYen0,10×g
36. Lang Son
City Lang Son0,04×gRural District Huu Lung0,08×g
Rural District Binh Gia0,04×gRural District Loc Binh0,06×g
Rural District Bac Son0,04×gRural District Trang Dinh0,06×g
Rural District Cao Loc0,04×gRural District Van Long0,06×g
Rural District Chi Lang0,04×gRural District Van District0,04×g
Rural District Dinh Lap0,04×g  
37. Lao Cai
City Lao Cai0,14×gRural District Bot Xot0,12×g
Town Sa Pa0,08×gRural District Muong Khuong0,04×g
Rural District Bac Ha0,06×gRural District Si Ma Cai0,04×g
Rural District Bao Yen0,14×gRural District Van Ban0,10×g
Rural District Bao Thang0,14×g  
38. Lam Dong
City Da Lat0,02×gRural District Don Duong0,04×g
City Bao Loc0,02×gRural District Duc Trong0,04×g
Rural District Bao Lom0,02×gRural District Da Huoai0,02×g
Rural District Cot Tien0,04×gRural District Da Teh0,02×g
Rural District Di Linh0,02×gRural District Lom Ha0,02×g
Rural District Dam Rong0,02×gRural District Lac Duong0,02×g
39. Long An
City Ton An0,02×gRural District Moc Hoa0,02×g
Town Kien Tuong0,02×gRural District Tan Hung0,02×g
Rural District Ben Luc0,04×gRural District Ton Thanh0,02×g
Rural District Can Duoc0,04×gRural District Ton Tru0,04×g
Rural District Can Giuoc0,04×gRural District Thanh Hoa0,02×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,02×gRural District Thu THoa0,04×g
Rural District Duc Hoa0,04×gRural District Vinh Hung0,02×g
Rural District Duc Hue0,04×g  
40. Nam Dinh
City Nam Dinh0,14×gRural District Nghia Hung0,14×g
Rural District Giao Thuy0,12×gRural District Truc Ninh0,14×g
Rural District Hai Hau0,14×gRural District Vu Ban0,14×g
Rural District My Loc0,14×gRural District Xuan Truong0,14×g
Rural District Nam Truc0,14×gRural District i Yen0,12×g
41. Nghe An
City Vinh0,12×gRural District Nam Dan0,12×g
Town Cua Lu0,12×gRural District Nghia Dan0,10×g
Town Hoàng Mai0,10×gRural District Que Phong0,08×g
Town Thai Hoa0,10×gRural District Quy Hop0,08×g
Rural District Anh Son0,10×gRural District Quynh Luu0,10×g
Rural District Con Cuung0,10×gRural District Quy Chau0,08×g
Rural District Dien Chau0,10×gRural District Ton Ky0,10×g
Rural District Do Luong0,12×gRural District Thanh Chuong0,12×g
Rural District Hung Nguyen0,12×gRural District Tuong Duong0,08×g
Rural District Ky Son0,06×gRural District Yen THanh0,10×g
Rural District Nghi Loc0,12×g  
42. Ninh Binh
City Ninh Binh0,12×gRural District Kim Son0,12×g
Town Tam Diep0,12×gRural District Nho District0,12×g
Rural District Gia Vien0,08×gRural District Yen Khonh0,12×g
Rural District Hoa Lu0,10×gRural District Yen Mu0,12×g
43. Ninh Thoan
City Phan Rang-Thop CHam0,02×gRural District Ninh Son0,02×g
Rural District Boc Ái0,02×gRural District Thoan Bac0,02×g
Rural District Ninh Hai0,02×gRural District Thoan Nam0,02×g
Rural District Ninh Phuoc0,02×g  
44. Phu Tho
City Viet Tro0,14×gRural District Tam Nung0,12×g
Town Phu Tho0,14×gRural District Tan Son0,08×g
Rural District Cam Kho0,12×gRural District Thanh Ba0,14×g
Rural District Doan Hung0,12×gRural District Thanh Son0,08×g
Rural District Ha Hoa0,12×gRural District Thanh Thuy0,08×g
Rural District Lom Thao0,14×gRural District Yen Lap0,08×g
Rural District Phu Ninh0,14×g  
45. Phu Yen
City Tuy Hoa0,10×gRural District Sung Hinh0,08×g
Town Sung Cau0,10×gRural District Son Hoa0,10×g
Rural District Dong Hoa0,08×gRural District Tay Hoa0,10×g
Rural District Dong Xuan0,10×gRural District Tuy An0,10×g
Rural District Phu Hoa0,10×g  
46. Quang Binh
City Dong Hoi0,04×gRural District Minh Hoa0,06×g
Town Ba Don0,08×gRural District Quang Ninh0,04×g
Rural District Bo Trach0,06×gRural District Quang Trach0,08×g
Rural District Le Thuy0,04×gRural District Tuyen Hoa0,08×g
47. Quang Nam
City Tam Ky0,08×gRural District Nam Giang0,04×g
City Hoi An0,04×gRural District Nong Son0,06×g
Town Dien Ban0,04×gRural District Nyi THanh0,06×g
Rural District Bac Tra My0,06×gRural District Phu Ninh0,08×g
Rural District Duy XuYen0,04×gRural District Phuoc Son0,10×g
Rural District Dai Loc0,04×gRural District Que Son0,08×g
Rural District Dong Giang0,04×gRural District Tay Giang0,06×g
Rural District Hiep Duc0,10×gRural District Thang Binh0,06×g
Rural District Nam Tra My0,06×gRural District Tien Phuoc0,06×g
48. Quang Ngai
City Quang Ngai0,08×gRural District Nghia Hanh0,06×g
Rural District Ba To0,10×gRural District Son Ha0,06×g
Rural District Binh Son0,08×gRural District Son Tay0,04×g
Rural District Duc Pho0,10×gRural District Son Tinh0,08×g
Rural District Ly Son0,08×gRural District Tay Tra0,08×g
Rural District Minh Long0,06×gRural District Tra Bong0,08×g
Rural District Mo Duc0,06×gRural District Tu Nghia0,08×g
49. Quang Ninh
City Ha Long0,10×gCity Mung Coi0,06×g
City Cam Pha0,08×gCity Uung Bo0,12×g
Town Quang Yen0,12×gRural District Dong Trieu0,12×g
Rural District Ba Che0,10×gRural District Hai Ha0,04×g
Rural District Binh Lieu0,04×gRural District Tien Yen0,06×g
Rural District Cu Tu0,02×gRural District Van Don0,06×g
Rural District Dam Ha0,04×g  
50. Quang Tri
City Dong Ha0,04×gRural District Gio Linh0,04×g
Town Quang Tri0,04×gRural District Huong Hoa0,04×g
Rural District Cam Lo0,04×gRural District Hai Lang0,04×g
Rural District Con Co0,06×gRural District Trieu Phong0,04×g
Rural District Da Krong0,04×gRural District Vinh Linh0,04×g
51. Soc Trang
City Soc Trang0,02×gRural District Long Phu0,04×g
Town Vinh Chau0,02×gRural District My Ty0,02×g
Town Ngo Nam0,02×gRural District My XuYen0,02×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,02×gRural District Thanh Tri0,02×g
Rural District Cu Lao Dung0,04×gRural District Tran De0,02×g
Rural District Ke Soch0,04×g  
52. Son La
City Son La0,18×gRural District Quynh Nhai0,12×g
Rural District Bac Yen0,08×gRural District Sung Mo0,14×g
Rural District Mai Son0,18×gRural District Sop Cop0,12×g
Rural District Moc Chau0,22×gRural District Thoan Chau0,22×g
Rural District Muong La0,10×gRural District Von Ho0,20×g
Rural District Phu Yen0,08×gRural District Yen Chau0,20×g
53. Tay Ninh
City Tay Ninh0,04×gRural District Hoa THanh0,04×g
Rural District Ben Cau0,06×gRural District Ton Bien0,04×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,04×gRural District Ton Chau0,04×g
Rural District Duong Minh Chau0,04×gRural District Trang Bang0,04×g
Rural District Gu Dau0,04×g  
54. Thai Binh
City Thai Binh0,12×gRural District Quynh Phu0,06×g
Rural District Dong Hung0,08×gRural District Thai Thuy0,06×g
Rural District Hung Ha0,12×gRural District Tien Hai0,08×g
Rural District Kien Xuong0,10×gRural District Vu Thu0,12×g
55. Thai NguYen
City Thai NguYen0,08×gRural District Dong Hy0,10×g
City Pho Yen0,08×gRural District Phu Binh0,06×g
Town Sung Cung0,08×gRural District Phu Luong0,10×g
Rural District Dai Tu0,12×gRural District Vu Nhai0,04×g
Rural District Dinh Hoa0,04×g  
56. Thanh Hoa
City Thanh Hoa0,14×gRural District Hau Loc0,20×g
City Sam Son0,12×gRural District Hoang Hoa0,20×g
Town Bim Son0,18×gRural District Lang Chong0,12×g
Town Nghi Son0,12×gRural District Muong Lat0,14×g
Rural District Ba Thuoc0,18×gRural District Nga Son0,16×g
Rural District Cam Thuy0,20×gRural District Ngoc Lac0,12×g
Rural District Dong Son0,12×gRural District Nhu Thanh0,12×g
Rural District Ha Trung0,22×gRural District Nhu Xuan0,10×g
Rural District Nung Cong0,12×gRural District Trieu Son0,12×g
Rural District District Hoa0,14×gRural District Thuong Xuan0,12×g
Rural District District Son0,10×gRural District Tho Xuon0,12×g
Rural District Quang Xuong0,12×gRural District Vinh Loc0,22×g
Rural District Thach THanh0,20×gRural District Yen Dinh0,18×g
Rural District Thieu Hoa0,14×g  
57. Thua Thien – Hue
City Hue0,06×gRural District Phong Dien0,06×g
Town Huong Thuy0,08×gRural District Phu Loc0,04×g
Town Huong Tra0,06×gRural District Phu Vang0,08×g
Rural District A Luoi0,04×gRural District Quang Dien0,06×g
Rural District Nam Dong0,08×g  
58. Tien Giang
City My Tho0,02×gRural District Cho Gao0,02×g
Town Cai Lay0,02×gRural District Gu Cung Tay0,04×g
Town Gu Cung0,04×gRural District Gu Cung Dong0,04×g
Rural District Coi Bo0,02×gRural District Tan Phuoc0,02×g
Rural District Cai Lay0,02×gRural District Tan Phu Dong0,04×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,02×g  
59. Tra Vinh
City Tra Vinh0,02×gRural District Chau Thanh0,02×g
Town DuYen Hai0,04×gRural District DuYen Hai0,04×g
Rural District Càng Long0,02×gRural District Tra Cy0,04×g
Rural District Cau Ko0,04×gRural District Tieu Can0,04×g
Rural District Cau Ngang0,02×g  
60. Tuyen Quang
City Tuyen Quang0,06×gRural District Na Hang0,04×g
Rural District Chiem Hoa0,04×gRural District Son Duong0,06×g
Rural District Ham Yen0,06×gRural District Yen Son0,08×g
Rural District Lom Binh0,04×g  
61. Vinh Long
City Vinh Long0,02×gRural District Tam Binh0,04×g
Town Binh Minh0,04×gRural District Tra en0,04×g
Rural District Long Ho0,02×gRural District Vung Liem0,02×g
Rural District Mang Thot0,02×gRural District Binh Ton0,04×g
62. Vinh Phuc
City Vinh Yen0,10×gRural District Tam Duong0,08×g
City Phuc Yen0,08×gRural District Tam Dao0,08×g
Rural District Binh XuYen0,08×gRural District Vinh Tuong0,14×g
Rural District Lap Thach0,10×gRural District Yen Lac0,12×g
Rural District Sung Lu0,12×g  
63. Yen Bai
City Yen Bai0,14×gRural District Tran Yen0,14×g
Town Nghia Lo0,08×gRural District Van Chan0,08×g
Rural District Luc Yen0,10×gRural District Van Yen0,14×g
Rural District Mu Cang Chai0,08×gRural District Yen Binh0,14×g
Rural District Tram Tau0,08×g  

Table 6.2 – Table of earthquake zoning based on short-period response spectrum SS and long-period response spectrum S1 by administrative locality with a 2,500-year return period for soil type B

LocationShort-period response spectrum SsLong-period response spectrum S1LocationShort-period response spectrum SsLong-period response spectrum S1
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
1. Ha Noi City
District Ba Dinh0,36×g0,14×gRural District Dan Phuong0,39×g0,17×g
District Cau Giay0,37×g0,15×gRural District Dong Anh0,30×g0,12×g
District Dong Da0,36×g0,16×gRural District Gia Lom0,30×g0,12×g
District Ha Dong0,39×g0,17×gRural District Hoai Duc0,39×g0,17×g
District Hai Ba Trung0,35×g0,16×gRural District Mo Linh0,30×g0,12×g
District Hoàn Kiem0,32×g0,15×gRural District My Duc0,37×g0,15×g
District Hoàng Mai0,37×g0,14×gRural District Phuc Tho0,40×g0,17×g
District Long Bien0,30×g0,12×gRural District Phu XuYen0,40×g0,19×g
District Tay Ho0,32×g0,15×gRural District Quoc Oai0,40×g0,17×g
District Thanh Xuon0,38×g0,17×gRural District Soc Son0,38×g0,15×g
District Bac Tu Liem0,38×g0,19×gRural District Thach That0,40×g0,18×g
District Nam Tu Liem0,38×g0,18×gRural District Thanh Oai0,40×g0,18×g
Town Son Tay0,40×g0,17×gRural District Thanh Tro0,38×g0,17×g
Rural District Ba Vo0,40×g0,19×gRural District Thuong Tin0,39×g0,19×g
Rural District Chuong My0,40×g0,17×gRural District Ung Hoa0,39×g0,18×g
2. Ho Chi Minh City
City Thu Duc0,23×g0,08×gDistrict 110,23×g0,08×g
District 10,23×g0,08×gDistrict 120,23×g0,08×g
District 30,23×g0,08×gDistrict Binh Thanh0,23×g0,08×g
District 40,23×g0,08×gDistrict Binh Ton0,23×g0,08×g
District 50,23×g0,08×gDistrict Gu Vap0,23×g0,08×g
District 60,23×g0,08×gDistrict Phu NHoan0,23×g0,08×g
District 70,23×g0,08×gDistrict Ton Binh0,23×g0,08×g
District 80,23×g0,08×gDistrict Ton Phu0,23×g0,08×g
District 100,23×g0,08×gRural District Binh Chong0,23×g0,08×g
Rural District Can Gio0,23×g0,08×gRural District Huc Mun0,23×g0,08×g
Rural District Cu Chi0,23×g0,08×gRural District NHa Bo0,23×g0,08×g
3. Hai Phong City
District Hong Bang0,53×g0,22×gRural District An Loo0,53×g0,21×g
District Duong Kinh0,45×g0,19×gRural District Bach Long Vi0,15×g0,06×g
District Do Son0,38×g0,15×gRural District Cot Hai0,15×g0,06×g
District Hai An0,53×g0,20×gRural District Kien Thuy0,45×g0,18×g
District Kien An0,53×g0,22×gRural District Thuy NguYen0,45×g0,17×g
District Lo Chon0,53×g0,20×gRural District Tien Long0,38×g0,15×g
District Ngu Quyen0,53×g0,20×gRural District Vinh Bao0,30×g0,12×g
Rural District An Duong0,53×g0,20×g
4. Da Nang City
District Cam Le0,14×g0,06×gDistrict Son Tra0,30×g0,12×g
District Hai Chau0,30×g0,12×gDistrict Thanh Kho0,30×g0,12×g
District Lien Chieu0,23×g0,09×gRural District Hoa Vang0,15×g0,06×g
District Ngu Hanh Son0,23×g0,09×gRural District Hoang Sa (District dao Hoang Sa)0,15×g0,06×g
5. Can Tho City
District Binh Thuy0,13×g0,06×gRural District Co Do0,08×g0,03×g
District Cai Rang0,15×g0,06×gRural District Phong Dien0,08×g0,03×g
District Ninh Kieu0,12×g0,06×gRural District Thai Lai0,08×g0,03×g
District e Mun0,15×g0,06×gRural District Vinh Thanh0,08×g0,03×g
District Thot Not0,13×g0,06×g
6. An Giang
City Long XuYen0,13×g0,06×gRural District An Phu0,15×g0,06×g
City Chau Doc0,13×g0,06×gRural District Chau Phu0,13×g0,06×g
Town Ton Chau0,15×g0,06×gRural District Chau Thanh0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Cho Moi0,15×g0,06×gRural District Tri Tun0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Phu Ton0,13×g0,06×gRural District Tinh Bien0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Thoai Son0,08×g0,03×g
7. Ba Ria – Vung Tàu
City Vung Tàu0,15×g0,06×gRural District Dat Do0,15×g0,06×g
City Ba Ria0,15×g0,06×gRural District Long Dien0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Chau Duc0,08×g0,03×gRural District Ton THanh0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Con Dao0,15×g0,06×gRural District Xuyen Moc0,06×g0,03×g
8. Bac Lieu
City Bac Lieu0,08×g0,03×gRural District Hong Don0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Dong Hai0,08×g0,03×gRural District Phuoc Long0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Gia Rai0,08×g0,03×gRural District Vinh Loi0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Hoa Binh0,08×g0,03×g
9. Bac Giang
City Bac Giang0,38×g0,14×gRural District Son Dong0,12×g0,06×g
Rural District Hiep Hoa0,30×g0,11×gRural District Ton Yen0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Lang Giang0,30×g0,12×gRural District Viet Yen0,45×g0,18×g
Rural District Luc Nam0,38×g0,16×gRural District Yen Dung0,38×g0,15×g
Rural District Luc Ngan0,23×g0,09×gRural District Yen The0,23×g0,09×g
10. Bac Kan
City Bac Kan0,30×g0,12×gRural District Cho Moi0,19×g0,09×g
Rural District Ba Be0,23×g0,10×gRural District Na Ro0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Bach Thung0,30×g0,13×gRural District Ngan Son0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Cho Don0,15×g0,06×gRural District Poc Nam0,19×g0,09×g
11. Bac Ninh
City Bac Ninh0,45×g0,18×gTown Tu Son0,30×g0,12×g
Rural District Gia Binh0,53×g0,21×gRural District Thoan THanh0,38×g0,15×g
Rural District Luong Tai0,45×g0,19×gRural District Tien Du0,38×g0,14×g
Rural District Que Vu0,45×g0,17×gRural District Yen Phong0,38×g0,14×g
12. Ben Tre
City Ben Tre0,08×g0,03×gRural District Giong Trom0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Ba Tri0,08×g0,03×gRural District Mo Cày Bac0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Binh Dai0,08×g0,03×gRural District Mo Cày Nam0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Thanh Phu0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Cho Loch0,08×g0,03×g
13. Binh Duong
City Thu Dau Mot0,15×g0,06×gRural District Bau Bang0,13×g0,06×g
Town Ben Cot0,12×g0,06×gRural District Bac Ton UYen0,08×g0,03×g
Town Di An0,13×g0,06×gRural District Dau Tieng0,13×g0,06×g
Town Ton UYen0,08×g0,03×gRural District Phu Giao0,13×g0,06×g
Town Thoan An0,23×g0,09×g
14. Binh Dinh
City Quy Nhon0,19×g0,09×gRural District Phu My0,20×g0,09×g
Town An Nhon0,18×g0,09×gRural District Tay Son0,20×g0,09×g
Rural District An Loo0,23×g0,08×gRural District Tuy Phuoc0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Hoai An0,19×g0,09×gRural District Von Canh0,23×g0,10×g
Rural District Hoai Nhon0,19×g0,09×gRural District Vinh Thanh0,21×g0,09×g
Rural District Phu Cot0,19×g0,09×g
15. Binh Phuoc
City Dong Xoai0,08×g0,03×gRural District Bu Dang0,08×g0,03×g
Town Binh Long0,08×g0,03×gRural District Bu Dop0,08×g0,03×g
Town Phuoc Long0,08×g0,03×gRural District Bu Gia Map0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chon Thanh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Hon District0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Dong Phu0,15×g0,06×gRural District Loc Ninh0,08×g0,03×g
16. Binh Thoan
City Phan Thiet0,08×g0,03×gRural District Ham Thoan Nam0,08×g0,03×g
Town La Gi0,15×g0,06×gRural District Ham Thoan Bac0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Bac Binh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Phu Quy0,19×g0,09×g
Rural District Duc Linh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tonh Linh0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Ham Ton0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tuy Phong0,15×g0,06×g
17. Cà Mau
City Cà Mau0,08×g0,03×gRural District Phu Ton0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Cai Nuoc0,08×g0,03×gRural District U Minh0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Dam Doi0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tran Van Thai0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Nam Can0,08×g0,03×gRural District Thai Binh0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Ngoc Hien0,15×g0,06×g
18. Cao Bang
City Cao Bang0,17×g0,06×gRural District Phuc Hoa0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Bao Lac0,15×g0,06×gRural District Quang UYen0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Bao Lom0,23×g0,09×gRural District Thach An0,17×g0,06×g
Rural District Ha Lang0,08×g0,03×gRural District Thung Nung0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Ha Quang0,23×g0,09×gRural District Tra Linh0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Hoa An0,17×g0,06×gRural District Trung Khonh0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District NguYen Binh0,15×g0,06×g
19. Dak Lak
City Buun Ma Thuot0,08×g0,03×gRural District Cu Kuin0,08×g0,03×g
Town Buun Ho0,08×g0,03×gRural District Cu M’gar0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Buon Don0,08×g0,03×gRural District Ea H’leo0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Ea Kar0,08×g0,03×gRural District Krong Nang0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Ea Syp0,08×g0,03×gRural District Krung Pac0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Krung A Na0,08×g0,03×gRural District Lak0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Krung Bung0,08×g0,03×gRural District M’Drak0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Krung Byk0,08×g0,03×g
20. Dak Nong
City Gia Nghia0,13×g0,06×gRural District Dak Song0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Cu Jut0,08×g0,03×gRural District Dak Glong0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Dak Mil0,08×g0,03×gRural District Krung Nu0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Dak R’Lap0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tuy Duc0,08×g0,03×g
21. Dien Bien
City Dien Bien Phu0,68×g0,26×gRural District Muong Cha0,61×g0,30×g
Town Muong Lay0,61×g0,31×gRural District Muong Nhe0,60×g0,23×g
Rural District Dien Bien0,47×g0,20×gRural District Nam Po0,60×g0,24×g
Rural District Dien Bien Dong0,53×g0,20×gRural District Tuan Giao0,75×g0,31×g
Rural District Muong Ang0,43×g0,21×gRural District Tua CHoa0,75×g0,31×g
22. Dong Nai
City Bien Hoa0,15×g0,06×gRural District Ton Phu0,08×g0,03×g
Town Long Khonh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Thong Nhat0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Cam My0,08×g0,03×gRural District Trang Bom0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Dinh District0,08×g0,03×gRural District Vinh Cuu0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Long THanh0,15×g0,06×gRural District Xuon Loc0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Nhon Trach0,13×g0,06×g
23. Dong Thap
City Cao Lonh0,08×g0,03×gTown Hong Ngu0,08×g0,03×g
City Sa Dec0,15×g0,06×gRural District Cao Lonh0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tam Nung0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Hong Ngu0,15×g0,06×gRural District Ton Hong0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Lai Vung0,13×g0,06×gRural District Thanh Binh0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Lap Vu0,15×g0,06×gRural District Thap Muoi0,08×g0,03×g
24. Gia Lai
City Pleiku0,08×g0,03×gRural District Dak Doa0,08×g0,03×g
Town An Kho0,15×g0,06×gRural District Krung Pa0,08×g0,03×g
Town Ayun Pa0,08×g0,03×gRural District Kung Chro0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chu Se0,08×g0,03×gRural District KBang0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Chu Puh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Ia Grai0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chu Prong0,08×g0,03×gRural District Ia Pa0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chu Pah0,08×g0,03×gRural District Mang Yang0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Dak Po0,08×g0,03×gRural District Phu Thien0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Duc Co0,08×g0,03×g
25. Ha Giang
City Ha Giang0,14×g0,06×gRural District Quang Binh0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Bac Mo0,15×g0,06×gRural District District Ba0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Bac Quang0,15×g0,06×gRural District Vi XuYen0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Dong Van0,15×g0,06×gRural District Xon Man0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Hoàng Su Pho0,15×g0,06×gRural District Yen Minh0,20×g0,09×g
Rural District Moo Vac0,15×g0,06×g
26. Ha Nam
City Phu Ly0,53×g0,21×gRural District Kim Bang0,53×g0,22×g
Town Duy Tien0,53×g0,20×gRural District Ly Nhon0,53×g0,20×g
Rural District Binh Luc0,53×g0,20×gRural District Thanh Liem0,53×g0,21×g
27. Ha Tinh
City Ha Tinh0,38×g0,17×gRural District Huong Son0,30×g0,15×g
Town Hong Linh0,38×g0,18×gRural District Huong Khe0,30×g0,12×g
Town Ky Anh0,37×g0,15×gRural District Loc Ha0,39×g0,17×g
Rural District Can Loc0,38×g0,18×gRural District Nghi Xuon0,38×g0,17×g
Rural District Cam XuYen0,37×g0,18×gRural District Thach Ha0,38×g0,19×g
Rural District Duc Tho0,37×g0,17×gRural District Vu Quang0,38×g0,14×g
28. Hai Duong
City Hai Duong0,53×g0,22×gRural District Kim THanh0,53×g0,20×g
City Cho Linh0,45×g0,19×gRural District Ninh Giang0,23×g0,10×g
Town Kinh Mun0,45×g0,17×gRural District Nam Soch0,53×g0,21×g
Rural District Binh Giang0,23×g0,09×gRural District Thanh Ha0,53×g0,22×g
Rural District Cam Giàng0,38×g0,14×gRural District Thanh Mien0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Gia Loc0,38×g0,15×gRural District Tu Ky0,45×g0,18×g
29. Hau Giang
City Vi Thanh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Long My0,08×g0,03×g
Town Ngo Bay0,08×g0,03×gRural District Phung Hiep0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,15×g0,06×gRural District Vi Thuy0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chau Thanh A0,08×g0,03×g
30. Hoa Binh
City Hoa Binh0,25×g0,12×gRural District Lac Thuy0,25×g0,12×g
Rural District Cao Phong0,30×g0,12×gRural District Luong Son0,24×g0,12×g
Rural District Da Bac0,27×g0,12×gRural District Mai Chau0,60×g0,24×g
Rural District Kim Bui0,19×g0,09×gRural District Ton Lac0,45×g0,18×g
Rural District Lac Son0,60×g0,24×gRural District Yen Thuy0,53×g0,20×g
31. Hung Yen
City Hung Yen0,53×g0,21×gRural District Phu Cu0,27×g0,12×g
Rural District Ân Thi0,28×g0,11×gRural District Tien Lu0,37×g0,19×g
Rural District Kim Dong0,38×g0,18×gRural District Van Giang0,28×g0,12×g
Rural District Khooi Chau0,37×g0,18×gRural District Van Lam0,30×g0,12×g
Rural District My Hao0,30×g0,12×gRural District Yen My0,24×g0,12×g
32. Khonh Hoa
City Nha Trang0,15×g0,06×gRural District Khanh Son0,15×g0,06×g
City Cam Ranh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Khonh Vinh0,15×g0,06×g
Town Ninh Hoa0,15×g0,06×gRural District Truong Sa (District dao Truong Sa)0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Cam Lom0,15×g0,06×gRural District Van Ninh0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Dien Khanh0,15×g0,06×g
33. Kien Giang
City Rach Gia0,08×g0,03×gRural District Giang THanh0,08×g0,03×g
City Phu Quoc0,08×g0,03×gRural District Gu Quao0,08×g0,03×g
Town Ha Tien0,08×g0,03×gRural District Hun Dat0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District An Bien0,08×g0,03×gRural District Kien Hai0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District An Minh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Kien Luong0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Ton Hiep0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Giong Rieng0,08×g0,03×gRural District Vinh Thoan0,08×g0,03×g
34. Kon Tum
City Kon Tum0,08×g0,03×gRural District Kon Plung0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Dak Ha0,08×g0,03×gRural District Ngoc Hoi0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Dak To0,08×g0,03×gRural District Sa Thay0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Dak Glei0,14×g0,06×gRural District Tu Mo Rong0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Kon Ray0,08×g0,03×gRural District Ia H’Drai0,13×g0,03×g
35. Lai Chau
City Lai Chau0,36×g0,17×gRural District Son Ho0,54×g0,28×g
Rural District Muong Te0,36×g0,18×gRural District Ton UYen0,32×g0,14×g
Rural District Nam Nhun0,51×g0,24×gRural District Tam Duong0,32×g0,14×g
Rural District Phong Tho0,45×g0,20×gRural District Than UYen0,38×g0,16×g
36. Lang Son
City Lang Son0,16×g0,06×gRural District Huu Lung0,30×g0,13×g
Rural District Binh Gia0,15×g0,06×gRural District Loc Binh0,23×g0,08×g
Rural District Bac Son0,15×g0,06×gRural District Trang Dinh0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Cao Loc0,17×g0,06×gRural District Van Long0,18×g0,09×g
Rural District Chi Lang0,15×g0,06×gRural District Van District0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Dinh Lap0,17×g0,06×g
37. Lao Cai
City Lao Cai0,53×g0,22×gRural District Bot Xot0,39×g0,17×g
Town Sa Pa0,25×g0,12×gRural District Muong Khuong0,14×g0,06×g
Rural District Bac Ha0,21×g0,09×gRural District Si Ma Cai0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Bao Yen0,53×g0,22×gRural District Van Ban0,36×g0,14×g
Rural District Bao Thang0,53×g0,21×g
38. Lam Dong
City Da Lat0,08×g0,03×gRural District Don Duong0,15×g0,06×g
City Bao Loc0,08×g0,03×gRural District Duc Trong0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Bao Lom0,08×g0,03×gRural District Da Huoai0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Cot Tien0,15×g0,06×gRural District Da Teh0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Di Linh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Lom Ha0,07×g0,03×g
Rural District Dam Rong0,08×g0,03×gRural District Lac Duong0,08×g0,03×g
39. Long An
City Ton An0,08×g0,03×gRural District Moc Hoa0,08×g0,03×g
Town Kien Tuong0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tan Hung0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Ben Luc0,13×g0,06×gRural District Ton Thanh0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Can Duoc0,15×g0,06×gRural District Ton Tru0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Can Giuoc0,13×g0,06×gRural District Thanh Hoa0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Thu THoa0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Duc Hoa0,13×g0,06×gRural District Vinh Hung0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Duc Hue0,13×g0,06×g
40. Nam Dinh
City Nam Dinh0,53×g0,22×gRural District Nghia Hung0,53×g0,21×g
Rural District Giao Thuy0,39×g0,18×gRural District Truc Ninh0,53×g0,22×g
Rural District Hai Hau0,53×g0,21×gRural District Vu Ban0,53×g0,21×g
Rural District My Loc0,53×g0,22×gRural District Xuan Truong0,53×g0,22×g
Rural District Nam Truc0,53×g0,22×gRural District i Yen0,39×g0,19×g
41. Nghe An
City Vinh0,380,17×gRural District Nam Dan0,38×g0,17×g
Town Cua Lu0,38×g0,18×gRural District Nghia Dan0,38×g0,15×g
Town Hoàng Mai0,33×g0,15×gRural District Que Phong0,30×g0,12×g
Town Thai Hoa0,38×g0,16×gRural District Quy Hop0,26×g0,12×g
Rural District Anh Son0,37×g0,14×gRural District Quynh Luu0,38×g0,14×g
Rural District Con Cuung0,36×g0,16×gRural District Quy Chau0,30×g0,11×g
Rural District Dien Chau0,35×g0,14×gRural District Ton Ky0,36×g0,15×g
Rural District Do Luong0,38×g0,18×gRural District Thanh Chuong0,38×g0,19×g
Rural District Hung Nguyen0,38×g0,19×gRural District Tuong Duong0,30×g0,12×g
Rural District Ky Son0,25×g0,09×gRural District Yen THanh0,36×g0,14×g
Rural District Nghi Loc0,38×g0,18×g
42. Ninh Binh
City Ninh Binh0,37×g0,18×gRural District Kim Son0,36×g0,19×g
Town Tam Diep0,45×g0,18×gRural District Nho District0,45×g0,18×g
Rural District Gia Vien0,25×g0,11×gRural District Yen Khonh0,38×g0,18×g
Rural District Hoa Lu0,36×g0,15×gRural District Yen Mu0,45×g0,18×g
43. Ninh Thoan
City Phan Rang- Thop CHam0,08×g0,03×gRural District Ninh Son0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Boc oi0,08×g0,03×gRural District Thoan Bac0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Ninh Hai0,08×g0,03×gRural District Thoan Nam0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Ninh Phuoc0,08×g0,03×g
44. Phu Tho
City Viet Tro0,53×g0,20×gRural District Tam Nung0,38×g0,19×g
Town Phu Tho0,53×g0,21×gRural District Tan Son0,30×g0,12×g
Rural District Cam Kho0,39×g0,17×gRural District Thanh Ba0,53×g0,22×g
Rural District Doan Hung0,39×g0,19×gRural District Thanh Son0,26×g0,12×g
Rural District Ha Hoa0,39×g0,19×gRural District Thanh Thuy0,29×g0,13×g
Rural District Lom Thao0,53×g0,21×gRural District Yen Lap0,28×g0,12×g
Rural District Phu Ninh0,53×g0,22×g
45. Phu Yen
City Tuy Hoa0,15×g0,06×gRural District Sung Hinh0,08×g0,03×g
Town Sung Cau0,18×g0,09×gRural District Son Hoa0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Dong Hoa0,15×g0,06×gRural District Tay Hoa0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Dong Xuan0,20×g0,09×gRural District Tuy An0,18×g0,09×g
Rural District Phu Hoa0,13×g0,06×g
46. Quang Binh
City Dong Hoi0,14×g0,06×gRural District Minh Hoa0,23×g0,09×g
Town Ba Don0,30×g0,12×gRural District Quang Ninh0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Bo Trach0,23×g0,09×gRural District Quang Trach0,25×g0,11×g
Rural District Le Thuy0,15×g0,06×gRural District Tuyen Hoa0,30×g0,12×g
47. Quang Nam
City Tam Ky0,14×g0,06×gRural District Nam Giang0,08×g0,03×g
City Hoi An0,15×g0,06×gRural District Nong Son0,15×g0,06×g
Town Dien Ban0,15×g0,06×gRural District Nyi THanh0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Bac Tra My0,30×g0,12×gRural District Phu Ninh0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Duy XuYen0,15×g0,06×gRural District Phuoc Son0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Dai Loc0,15×g0,06×gRural District Que Son0,23×g0,08×g
Rural District Dong Giang0,15×g0,06×gRural District Tay Giang0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Hiep Duc0,45×g0,17×gRural District Thang Binh0,14×g0,06×g
Rural District Nam Tra My0,30×g0,12×gRural District Tien Phuoc0,15×g0,06×g
48. Quang Ngai
City Quang Ngai0,13×g0,06×gRural District Nghia Hanh0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Ba To0,16×g0,06×gRural District Son Ha0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Binh Son0,14×g0,06×gRural District Son Tay0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Duc Pho0,18×g0,06×gRural District Son Tinh0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Ly Son0,07×g0,03×gRural District Tay Tra0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Minh Long0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tra Bong0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Mo Duc0,15×g0,06×gRural District Tu Nghia0,15×g0,06×g
49. Quang Ninh
City Ha Long0,38×g0,15×gCity Mung Coi0,23×g0,09×g
City Cam Pha0,30×g0,13×gCity Uung Bo0,45×g0,18×g
Town Quang Yen0,45×g0,19×gRural District Dong Trieu0,45×g0,19×g
Rural District Ba Che0,38×g0,15×gRural District Hai Ha0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Binh Lieu0,15×g0,06×gRural District Tien Yen0,20×g0,09×g
Rural District Cu Tu0,08×g0,03×gRural District Van Don0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Dam Ha0,13×g0,06×g
50. Quang Tri
City Dong Ha0,15×g0,06×gRural District Gio Linh0,15×g0,06×g
Town Quang Tri0,15×g0,06×gRural District Huong Hoa0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Cam Lo0,15×g0,06×gRural District Hai Lang0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Con Co0,25×g0,09×gRural District Trieu Phong0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Da Krong0,15×g0,06×gRural District Vinh Linh0,15×g0,06×g
51. Soc Trang
City Soc Trang0,08×g0,03×gRural District Long Phu0,15×g0,06×g
Town Vinh Chau0,06×g0,03×gRural District My Ty0,08×g0,03×g
Town Ngo Nam0,08×g0,03×gRural District My XuYen0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Thanh Tri0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Cu Lao Dung0,15×g0,06×gRural District Tran De0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Ke Soch0,15×g0,06×g
52. Son La
City Son La0,68×g0,26×gRural District Quynh Nhai0,45×g0,19×g
Rural District Bac Yen0,26×g0,12×gRural District Sung Mo0,53×g0,20×g
Rural District Mai Son0,68×g0,25×gRural District Sop Cop0,40×g0,18×g
Rural District Moc Chau0,83×g0,35×gRural District Thoan Chau0,83×g0,32×g
Rural District Muong La0,38×g0,16×gRural District Von Ho0,75×g0,31×g
Rural District Phu Yen0,25×g0,13×gRural District Yen Chau0,75×g0,28×g
53. Tay Ninh
City Tay Ninh0,15×g0,06×gRural District Hoa THanh0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Ben Cau0,23×g0,08×gRural District Ton Bien0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,13×g0,06×gRural District Ton Chau0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Duong Minh Chau0,15×g0,06×gRural District Trang Bang0,12×g0,06×g
Rural District Gu Dau0,15×g0,06×g
54. Thai Binh
City Thai Binh0,38×g0,17×gRural District Quynh Phu0,21×g0,08×g
Rural District Dong Hung0,27×g0,12×gRural District Thai Thuy0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Hung Ha0,37×g0,19×gRural District Tien Hai0,25×g0,13×g
Rural District Kien Xuong0,36×g0,14×gRural District Vu Thu0,39×g0,17×g
55. Thai NguYen
City Thai NguYen0,30×g0,11×gRural District Dong Hy0,38×g0,14×g
City Pho Yen0,26×g0,13×gRural District Phu Binh0,23×g0,09×g
Town Sung Cung0,26×g0,12×gRural District Phu Luong0,38×g0,15×g
Rural District Dai Tu0,45×g0,18×gRural District Vu Nhai0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Dinh Hoa0,14×g0,06×g
56. Thanh Hoa
City Thanh Hoa0,53×g0,20×gRural District Hau Loc0,75×g0,30×g
City Sam Son0,37×g0,17×gRural District Hoang Hoa0,75×g0,32×g
Town Bim Son0,68×g0,28×gRural District Lang Chong0,37×g0,18×g
Town Nghi Son0,38×g0,19×gRural District Muong Lat0,53×g0,22×g
Rural District Ba Thuoc0,68×g0,25×gRural District Nga Son0,60×g0,25×g
Rural District Cam Thuy0,75×g0,30×gRural District Ngoc Lac0,37×g0,18×g
Rural District Dong Son0,39×g0,18×gRural District Nhu Thanh0,39×g0,19×g
Rural District Ha Trung0,83×g0,33×gRural District Nhu Xuan0,36×g0,16×g
Rural District Nung Cong0,39×g0,18×gRural District Trieu Son0,38×g0,18×g
Rural District District Hoa0,43×g0,22×gRural District Thuong Xuan0,38×g0,19×g
Rural District District Son0,35×g0,16×gRural District Tho Xuon0,37×g0,17×g
Rural District Quang Xuong0,37×g0,19×gRural District Vinh Loc0,83×g0,32×g
Rural District Thach THanh0,75×g0,30×gRural District Yen Dinh0,68×g0,27×g
Rural District Thieu Hoa0,53×g0,22×g
57. Thua Thien Hue
City Hue0,23×g0,09×gRural District Phong Dien0,23×g0,10×g
Town Huong Thuy0,30×g0,12×gRural District Phu Loc0,15×g0,06×g
Town Huong Tra0,23×g0,09×gRural District Phu Vang0,30×g0,12×g
Rural District A Luoi0,15×g0,06×gRural District Quang Dien0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Nam Dong0,30×g0,12×g
58. Tien Giang
City My Tho0,08×g0,03×gRural District Cho Gao0,08×g0,03×g
Town Cai Lay0,08×g0,03×gRural District Gu Cung Tay0,15×g0,06×g
Town Gu Cung0,13×g0,06×gRural District Gu Cung Dong0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Coi Bo0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tan Phuoc0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Cai Lay0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tan Phu Dong0,15×g0,06×g
Rural District Chau Thanh0,08×g0,03×g
59. Tra Vinh
City Tra Vinh0,08×g0,03×gRural District Cau Ngang0,08×g0,03×g
Town, Rural District DuYen Hai0,15×g0,06×gRural District Chau Thanh0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Càng Long0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tra Cy0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Cau Ko0,15×g0,06×gRural District Tieu Can0,15×g0,06×g
60. Tuyen Quang
City Tuyen Quang0,19×g0,09×gRural District Na Hang0,14×g0,06×g
Rural District Chiem Hoa0,15×g0,06×gRural District Son Duong0,23×g0,09×g
Rural District Ham Yen0,23×g0,08×gRural District Yen Son0,27×g0,12×g
Rural District Lom Binh0,12×g0,06×g
61. Vinh Long
City Vinh Long0,08×g0,03×gRural District Tam Binh0,15×g0,06×g
Town Binh Minh0,13×g0,06×gRural District Tra en0,13×g0,06×g
Rural District Long Ho0,08×g0,03×gRural District Vung Liem0,08×g0,03×g
Rural District Mang Thot0,08×g0,03×gRural District Binh Ton0,15×g0,06×g
62. Vinh Phuc
City Vinh Yen0,30×g0,15×gRural District Tam Duong0,29×g0,13×g
City Phuc Yen0,25×g0,12×gRural District Tam Dao0,30×g0,13×g
Rural District Binh XuYen0,27×g0,12×gRural District Vinh Tuong0,53×g0,21×g
Rural District Lap Thach0,36×g0,16×gRural District Yen Lac0,38×g0,17×g
Rural District Sung Lu0,38×g0,19×g
63. Yen Bai
City Yen Bai0,53×g0,20×gRural District Tran Yen0,53×g0,20×g
Town Nghia Lo0,29×g0,13×gRural District Van Chan0,30×g0,12×g
Rural District Luc Yen0,37×g0,16×gRural District Van Yen0,53×g0,22×g
Rural District Mu Cang Chai0,27×g0,11×gRural District Yen Binh0,53×g0,20×g
Rural District Tram Tau0,30×g0,13×g

Table 6.3 – Classification of structural damage 1)

I. Type of structure
(Buildings constructed without earthquake-resistant measures)
Type A: Buildings with low rigidity masonry walls, rural architecture; buildings with walls made of slate, clay.
Type B: Ordinary brick buildings, large block and precast buildings, half-timber architecture, buildings made of dressed hard stone.
Type C: Reinforced concrete buildings, good quality wooden buildings.
II. Quantitative characteristics
Few: about 5%, many: about 50%, most: about 75%.
III. Damage grades
Grade 1 – Slight damage: cracking of plaster and falling of small plaster fragments.
Grade 2 – Moderate damage: small cracks in walls, falling of fairly large plaster pieces, tiles falling, cracks in chimneys, parts of chimneys falling.
Grade 3 – Heavy damage: large and deep cracks in walls, falling of chimneys.
Grade 4 – Destruction: cracks passing through walls, collapse of parts of buildings, damage to connections between separate parts of buildings, collapse of interior and frame walls.
Grade 5 – Collapse: complete destruction of buildings.
1) Source: Appendix VIII, A., Decision No. 18/2021/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister dated April 22, 2021.

Table 6.4 – Classification of earthquake effects according to the MSK – 64 scale and conversion between reference peak ground acceleration and surface shaking intensity 1)

Surface shaking intensity (or earthquake grade), IReference peak ground acceleration, agRDescription of characteristics
V0,012– 0,03gAwaken
Felt indoors by all, outdoors by many. Many sleeping people awake. A few run outdoors. Animals become uneasy. Buildings tremble throughout. Hanging objects swing considerably. Pictures knock against walls or swing out of place. In a few cases, pendulum clocks stop. A few unstable objects may be overturned or shifted. Open doors and windows are thrust open and slam back again. Liquids spill in small amounts from well-filled open containers. The sensation is like that of a heavy object falling inside the building.
VI0,03– 0,06gFrightened
Felt by most indoors and outdoors. Many people in buildings are frightened and run outdoors. A few persons lose their balance. Domestic animals run out of their stalls. In a few instances, dishes and glassware may break, books fall down. Heavy furniture may possibly move and small steeple bells may ring. Damage of Grade 1 is sustained in a few buildings of Type B and in many of Type A; a few buildings of Type A sustain damage of Grade 2. On wet ground, cracks up to widths of 1 cm may occur; landslides are possible on steeper slopes. Changes in flow or temperature of springs and wells may occur.
VII0,06– 0,12gDamage to buildings
Most people are frightened and run outdoors. Many find it difficult to stand. The vibration is noticed by persons driving motor cars. Large bells ring. Damage of Grade 1 is caused to many buildings of Type C; many buildings of Type B suffer damage of Grade 2; most buildings of Type A suffer damage of Grade 3, a few of Grade 4. In a few cases, landslides of roadcuts on steep slopes and cracks in paved roads are observed. Ruptures, cracks and shifting of pipework connections occur. Stone walls collapse. Some house water tanks become dislodged. Water in lakes becomes turbid due to mud stirred up. Changes in flow and level of water in wells may occur. In a few instances, new springs appear or existing springs disappear.
VIII0,12– 0,24gDestruction of buildings
Panic and fear is general, even persons driving motor cars are disturbed. Here and there branches of trees break off. Furniture is partly overturned. Objects fall from shelves. Tombstones may occasionally shift, twist or overturn. Stone walls collapse. Many buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 2, a few of Grade 3; many buildings of Type B suffer damage of Grade 3, a few of Grade 4; many buildings of Type A suffer damage of Grade 4, a few of Grade 5. Ruptures, cracks and shifts of pipework connections are frequent. Monuments and statues move and twist. Tombstones overturn. Stone walls collapse. Landslides considerable on riverbanks and steep slopes; cracks develop in ground up to widths of several centimeters. New water basins form. Dry wells refill or existing wells become dry. In many cases, change in flow and level of water is observed.
IX0,24– 0,48gComplete damage to buildings
General panic. Considerable damage to furniture. Animals run wildly and cry. Many buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 3, a few of Grade 4; many buildings of Type B show damage of Grade 4, a few of Grade 5. Most buildings of Type A suffer damage of Grade 5. Monuments and columns fall. Considerable damage to reservoirs; underground pipes partly broken. Railroad tracks are bent and roadway damaged. On flat land, flooding occurs and sand and mud are ejected. Ground cracks to widths of up to 10 cm develop; on slopes and riverbanks, more than 10 cm. Landslides widespread in steep terrain; rock falls occur. Large waves appear on water.
X0,48– 0,8gComplete destruction of buildings
Many buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 4, a few of Grade 5; many buildings of Type B show damage of Grade 5; most buildings of Type A have destruction of Grade 5. Critical damage to dams and dykes and severe damage to bridges. Railway lines are slightly bent and pipework is put out of service. Pavements and asphalt show waves. Ground considerably distorted by broad cracks and fissures, as well as by movement in horizontal and vertical directions; in some cases, up to 1 m. Parallelism of rivers banks is destroyed, river beds change. Water from canals, lakes, rivers is thrown on land. New lakes occur.
1) Source: Appendix VIII, B., Decision No. 18/2021/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister dated April 22, 2021.
NOTE: In Table 6.4, the value agR is the reference peak ground acceleration determined for soil type A (rock, hard rock), with a 500-year return period; when converting, the surface shaking intensity in Table 6.4 is also the earthquake grade according to the MSK -64 scale corresponding to soil type A, with a 500-year return period; g = 9.81 m/s2 (gravitational acceleration).
7 IMPLEMENTATION ORGANIZATION

7.1 Transitional provisions

a) Construction investment projects approved before the effective date of QCVN 02:2022/BXD shall have subsequent implementation steps carried out in accordance with the provisions of QCVN 02:2009/BXD.

b) Construction investment projects approved after the effective date of QCVN 02:2022/BXD shall be implemented in accordance with the provisions of QCVN 02:2022/BXD.

7.2 During the implementation of this regulation, if any difficulties or problems arise, all comments should be sent to the Department of Science, Technology and Environment – Ministry of Construction for guidance and resolution.

7.3 The Ministry of Construction is responsible for organizing the dissemination and guidance on the application of this regulation to relevant subjects.

7.4 The local state management agencies on construction are responsible for organizing the inspection of compliance with this regulation in the design and construction of works and other construction activities in their localities in accordance with the provisions of law.